Battle of Quebec

Where and when did it happen?

        The main battle was fought on December 31, 1775, between American Continetal Army forces and the British defenders of Quebec City early in the American Revolutinary War. The main battlefield is around the Quebec City, it is the capital of the Quebec Province in Canada. But before that, Continetal Army defeated most of  Quebec's British Army at the Fort St. Jean under the led General Richard Montagomery, and they almost caught Guy Carleton.

Guy Carleton, Commander of Quebec.

What happend?

       General View: The Battle end with the fiasco of the Continetal Army. General Richard Montagomery was killed during one of the last few assault fortified positions, and Colonel Benedict Arnold was badly injured.

        Details: The Continetal Army made the decision to have an expedition to Canada and  attack the British Army who stationed there during the Second Continetal Congress, June, 1775. The Army marched in two group, the West group was led by General Richard, and the East group was led by Colonel Benedict Arnold. The west group sieged and conquered most of the living British force in Quebec Province at the Fort St. Jean. The East group reached the border of Quebec City first in Nov. 13 1775, but with only around 600men, and they were deeply effected by the weather and long distant marching, at the beginning there were around 1100men in the East group Army, nearly half of Arnold's men were died, injured or lost during the marching. Also they were lack of ammo and winter coats, so all they did is fall back a little bit and stationed  at Pointe-aux-Trembles, waitting for the support from the West group Army.

       The West group Army arrived in Dec. 1st 1775, with around 700 men and many winter supplies captured from the Fort St.Jean. Also, they did have some artillery, but beacuse they marched so long, all they had were 4 Falcons and 6 Carronades. At the beginning, the people in Quebec were still afraid of them, for they still remebered how James Wolf destroied the whole downtown of Quebec by using his Artillery. But soon they found out that the siege army's firepower were really weak and the British Army have even strong artillery firepower. As a result, during the artillery engagement,the command post of Arnold were even destroyed by the British cannonball.

       The Continetal Army realized that they can't take advantage from the artillery engagement, so they decided to attacked by troops, as their last possible movement, for it's near the end of the year and most militiamen's service time in the army had came to an end. So they started to attack on Dec.31. But because of the traitors, their attack plan was known by the British. Even through the Continetal Army fight bravely, and many officers charge at the head of their men, they failed in the end. They were ambushed and out numbered, many head officers were dead or injured. Most of them were separated and sieged by the Birtish army. They stopped fighting and started to surrender. 431 Continetal Troops were captured.

        The End: Arnold made himslef and some of his men got out successfully, but the militiamen among them started to return to their hometown for their surving time had came to an end. Arnold refused to left. He and the rest men still surrounding the city, but basiclly it was meaningless. Smallpox started to spread among the Contiental Army.  Arnold was badly injured angin on March.31 for he fell off his horse. So he left and gave the command of the army to John Tomas, who died in June because of Smallpox. There were some fight among two sides during that time but not meanful. After the Birtish sent a 200 regular army as reinforcements on May 6, the balance was fully broken, and Guy Carleton started to went out the city and attacked the Contiental Army. The Contiental Army was fully defeated and started to retreat.

Unique or significant

        General Richard Montgomery had a great strategy at the begining, he and his men defeated nearly all the living force of British army, so the Contiental Army could take advantage. But there fault was that they marched too long and fight with out hevay weapons, this caused their failue in the end.

        British Commander Guy Carleton defent the city successfully by maximized his terrain advantage, kept consuming the Contiental Army, and remained patient before the reinforcements arrived.

Strategic significance:

        The Battle of Quebec end with the fiasco of the Contiental Army, and it led to a comprehensive failure of the expedition plan made by the Second Contiental Congress. Meanwhile, more than 13000 men of British reinforcements that led by John Burgoyne were sent to Quebec, caused a really heavy economic pressure to Quebec due to their population. This reinforcements army, along with their commander, John Burgoyne, later marched south and joined the battle of Saratoga for they took a really big advantage in Canada, and we all know what happend in Saratoga.

        On the other hand, the commander of Quebec, Guy Carleton had punished the Canadians who helped the Contiental Army severely, forced them to do the labour work. This action made the people of Quebec afraid, and no one was brave enough to support the Contiental Army open-door during the war time.

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