By: Sarah Mangan


The green color on the flag represents the native people of Ireland (most of whom are Roman Catholic). The orange color represents the British supporters of William of Orange who settled in Northern Ireland in the 17th century (most of whom are Protestant). The white in the center of the flag represents peace between these two groups of people.


Ireland is located in Northwest Europe at 53.3442° N, 6.2675° W. It neighbors the United Kingdom (but is separated by the Irish Sea) and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. The country includes low central plains surrounded by coastal mountains. The country is also includes small islands and peninsulas.


Ireland's climate is influenced most by the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, it doesn't have the extreme temperatures that other countries at similar latitude would have. The average temperature is a mild 50°F. A major warm ocean current called the North Atlantic Drift keeps sea temperatures mild too.


6000- B.C.- The first settlement took place by a group of hunters and fishers on the east coast

700-150 B.C.- the Gaelic speaking Celts come to the country and drive out the inhabitants

430-800- Christianity is established in Ireland by their patron, St. Patrick

800-900- The country is invaded by Vikings

1270-1366- English settlement and repression

1455-1541- Wars of the Roses and Geraldine domination

1532-1603- Ireland and the Reformation

1660-90- Establishment of Protestant supremacy

1695-1782- Penal Laws and repression

1782-1800-Period of Irish parliamentarianism

1800-1922- Ireland and Union

1845-1851- Famine and Emigration

1916-1923- Irish Revolution

1922-48- Irish Free State

1949-2000's- The Irish Republic

1960's-2000's- Troubles in Northern Ireland



Government Building on Merriot Street in Dublin, Ireland

The government of the Republic of Ireland is run three different ways: the Constitutional Republic, Unitary State, and the Parliamentary System. A Constitutional Republic is a state in which the head of state and several other officials represent the people by governing the existing constitution. The Unitary State is a state governed by one single power in which the central government is the supreme and any other units exercise only powers that their central government chooses to assign. And finally, the Parliamentary System is a system of governance of democrats in which the executive branch derives its lawfulness from parliament. The president of  the Republic of Ireland is Micheal D. Higgins.

President Micheal D. Higgins

Dublin, Ireland

The city of Dublin is Ireland capital. It is located on the country's east coast in the province of Leinster at the mouth of the River Liffey. Its medieval attractions include the 13th-century Dublin castle and the St. Patrick's Cathedral. The city also includes Kilmainham Gaol, the National Museum of Ireland-Archaeology, Phoenix Park, Dublin Zoo, and the Trinity College Library.  

Population and Language

Gathering for St. Patrick's Day

The current population of Ireland is 4,801,084. The first official language of the country is Gaelic, but the second, and more commonly used language is English. About 30% of the population knows how to speak Gaelic and 5% uses it regularly.


Ireland's culture is absorbed in music, art, literature, folklore, cuisine and sports. Their culture is influenced mainly by Gaelic, Anglo-Norman, English, and Scottish cultures. Since the Irish have immigrated world wide, their holidays are celebrated everywhere including St. Patrick's Day, Halloween, and the Twelfth of July (Orangemen's Day). The Irish culture is very similar to all English speaking cultures. Many of the Irish holidays are based off of Christian traditions.

Some of the sports the Irish play are Gaelic football, Rugby, Hurling, Soccer, and Hockey. Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance and community involvement, and represents 34% of total sports attendances at events in the Republic of Ireland, followed by hurling at 23%, soccer at 16% and rugby at 8%.

The Irish musical culture is very unique and distinct. Irish Traditional Music or Celtic Music is made of the bagpipe, fiddle, tin whistle, flute, accordion and concertina. The Celtic Dance is probably the most commonly known cultural dance that the Irish do. They wear traditional Irish dancing costumes, makeup and ringleted wigs.

Currency & Imports/Exports

The Ireland currency is Euros. Ireland's resources include petroleum, natural gas, peat, copper, lead, silver, and zinc. Some industries based on the resources are foresting, fishing, mining, and agriculture. The top five major exports of Ireland include: Nitrogen Compounds, Packaged Medicaments, Human or Animal Blood, Scented Mixtures, and Nucleic Acids. The top five major imports are: Refined Petroleum, Packaged Medicaments, Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecrafts, Petroleum Gas, and Computers.


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