Textbook Glossary

Metaphor- describes one thing as if it were something else.

Personification- gives human qualities to something nonhuman.

Similes- use like or as to compare two unlike things.

Alliteration- the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words.

Repetition- the repeated use of a sound, word, or phrase.

Assonance- the repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds.

Consonance- the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds.

Onomatopoeia-the use of words that imitate sounds.

Rhyme- the repetition of sounds at the ends of words.

Rhythm- the pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem.

Lines-help poets add natural pauses by breaking up a poem into many individual parts.Each line maybe punctuated differently, or not at all. A capital letter usually introduces the beginning of a line.

Stanzas- are the arrangement of groups of lines to create an appearance on the page or to organize thoughts. Each stanza is set off from the next stanza by a blank line below it. Certain forms of poetry have a set number of lines and a rhythmical pattern that each stanza must follow.

Meter-is the rhythmical pattern, or the arrangement and number of stressed and unstressed syllables. Strong and weak beats can be indicated.

Rhyme Scheme-the pattern of rhyme in a poem and it is written in letters.

Lyric Poetry-expresses the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often in a very musical verse. The speaker and the poet are not always the same person. Lyric poetry is a broad category that includes many specific types of poems, such as sonnets, odes, and elegies.

Sonnets-are fourteen line poems with a formal tone that follow a specific rhyme scheme. Sonnets' subjects often vary, but the purpose of the sonnet is to praise.

Odes-are poems with a formal tone written for the single purpose of celebrating or honoring a person, object, or idea.

Elegies-are formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes.  The structure of elegies varies considerably.

Narrative Poetry-tells a story in verse. Narrative poems have elements like those in a short story such as setting, plot, and characters. The category of narrative poetry includes narrow classification such as epics and ballads.

Epics-are long poems that tell an exciting or inspiring story usually about a hero. As fits its subject an epic has a serious elevated tone and sometimes has a regular meter. Epics often begin with an appeal to a muse the that the ancient Greeks believed controlled inspiration in the arts.

Ballads-are song-like poems that tell a story often dealing with adventure, tragedy, or romance.

Free Verse Poetry-is defined by its lack of strict structure it has no regular meter no, intentional rhyme, no fixed line lengths and no specific stanza patterns. Instead the poet chooses a loose structure that fits the poem.

Limericks-are humorous five line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and ia aabba rhyme scheme.

Concrete Poem- the words are arranged on the page to form the shape that suggested topic or ideas in the poem concrete poems often have a lighthearted or humorous tone. The structure is loose, without regular meter though they may rhyme.

Haiku-are short, unrhymed poems, often about nature. The  form originated in Japan but it's simplicity and power has made it popular worldwide. It's tone is often thoughtful but it can be playful as well the line and rhythmic structures.