Lack Of Liberty
Black Codes: Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves. This is lacking liberty because slaves did not have the same rights as others, which means not everyone was treated equally.
Jim Crows Laws: Laws enacted by southern states and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private places. There were different bathrooms, water fountains and even bigger than that, they separated white and blacks in schools, restaurants, buses, etc. They didn't give every race the same amount of freedom and rights.
Sharecropping: A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked on land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops. These people had to pay for tools, but were not getting enough in return so it wasn’t equal.
Plessy vs. Ferguson: This was a supreme court decision that established the legality of racial segregation so long as facilities were “separate but equal”. This was a case that made Jim Crow Laws legal. People had more rights and more liberty, but there was still so much segregation in public places. They couldn't do the same things as white people.
Segregation: This is separation of people by race. Segregation occurred a lot in public places like schools and churches. This disabled people from going to the same places as everyone else.
This shows that colored people and white people were separated in several different places including public bathrooms.
This is a group of colored men and women working on land that was owned by others. In return they got a portion of the crops, but it was still not fair at all.
Trail of Tears: In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. This is showing lack or liberty because these people were forced to move out of their homeland and go somewhere else without their consent.
Manifest Destiny: A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic to Pacific. They claimed this land and took over causing the Indians to be removed from their land and their homes. They had no place to go and this took away their freedom and liberty.
Indian Removal Act: The law permitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indians' lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma.The Indians wanted to stay on their land, but because the U.S. was taking over they had to find a different place to go.
This is Indians being removed from their homeland after the Indian Removal Act was put into place.
This is a picture of different groups of people moving west to new land. They were no longer allowed to stay in their homeland so they moved west where they though there would be more opportunity.
Age of Innovation:
Sherman Antitrust Act: An 1890 federal law that outlawed trusts, monopolies, and other forms of business that restricted trade. This is a lack of liberty because it is restricting a certain thing within a business that many people worked hard to get.
This is showing a man cutting down a tree (that represents trusts). Laws are overpowering it which is a lack of liberty because of the work people put into their achievements.
Labors Response to Industrialism:
Child Labor: Children were treated with lack of liberty because they were forced to work in horrible conditions at young ages with less than minimum wage. This was lacking liberty because they did not get the same treatment as others.
Tenement: People in the Working Class who performed manual labor were forced to live close to the factories. These tenements were crowded and filled with diseases, but they had no other choice for a place to live.
Sweatshop: A sweatshop is a lack of liberty because people are forced into small factories where they work long hours under poor conditions for low wages.
This image shows young children working in factories and sweatshops where the conditions are poor.
This is an example of a small and run down tenement. Several people had to live in these unsanitary homes where everything was in one tiny room.
Steerage: Poor people were forced to ride under the boat in the steerage. They were forced in cramped spaces with disease-filled air for days on end. Meanwhile the more fortunate people were allowed to be up on deck with more space and advantages.
Americanization: Americanization is the assimilation of immigrants into American society, a goal of some patriotic groups who feared that increased immigration threatened American society and values. Therefore, americans forced native americans to dress like them and follow their culture which deprived them of expressing their own culture and beliefs in order to make sure that nothing would threaten America.
Chinese Exclusion Act: The Chinese Exclusion Act was a law that prohibited immigration by Chinese laborers. This is a lack of liberty because it did not allow Chinese immigrants to come into the United States and start a life.
Many people stayed on this part of the boat for long periods of time without food and water. It was very crowded most of the time.
The Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited Chinese laborers which was unfair for that race.
Temperance Movement: A reform movement that called for moderation in drinking alcohol. This movement took away citizens rights to drink what/how much they wanted.
18th Amendment: It declared it illegal to make, transport, or sell alcohol in the United States which deprived people from making their own decisions and drinking what they want.
16th Amendment: Gave congress the right to impose an income tax which cost the citizens more money and they had no say or choice in the decision.
This is showing many men pouring out alcohol into sewers because of the new law put into place.
Hawaii Annexation: The United States of America wanted to control Hawaii. America first became interested in Hawaii as an important stop for ships crossing the Pacific Ocean. In 1840 the United States told other powers to stay out of Hawaii. Native Hawaiians did not want America to have control, but the whites continued to seize power and set up an official government. America was not giving Hawaii liberty because they took control over Hawaii, without giving them a choice.
The Platt Amendment: The Platt Amendment were 1903 Provisions in the Cuban constitution. They were added as a condition for the withdrawal of U.S. troops, allowing the United States to intervene in Cuban affairs and to buy or lease land for naval bases. In addition, American businesses owned sixty percent of Cuba’s rural land. This gave Cuba a lack of liberty because America was taking over in Cuban affairs and using their Naval bases, and also giving them very little liberty.
Panama Canal: The Panama Canal was built by the United States through the Isthmus of Panama to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. America wanted this canal built so that it would shorten the trip between the East and West coast of the US, it would lower the transportation cost of manufactured goods, and it would increase trade between the East coast and China. This gave Panamanian natives a lack of liberty because America was taking over so that they could help build the canal for their own good.
Philippines Independence: America gave the Philippines lack of liberty so that they could have greater access to Chinese trade. America did this because they wanted to have free trade in the Asia-Pacific region.
America was taking over Hawaii without giving them any choice at all.
The Panama Canal was built for the good of Americans and no one else. They wanted what was best for them.
World War 1:
Select Service Act: The Select Service Act was a law passed by Congress in 1917 to create a national draft. This act gave American citizens a lack of liberty because they did not have the option of choosing if they wanted to be in the war. In addition, if you were drafted you had to go into the war against your will.
Espionage Act: The Espionage Act was a law passed by Congress in 1917 to make it illegal to spy, interfere with government foreign policy, and to resist the military draft. America took away citizens liberty by making it illegal to resist the military draft.
Sedition Act: The Sedition Act was a law passed by Congress in 1918 to make it illegal to say anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government or the war effort. This took away American citizens liberty because they were no longer allowed to say what they wanted to about the government or the war effort without being penalized.
Schenck vs United States: Schenck vs United States was a Supreme Court case in 1919 that declared that Charles Schenck's propaganda efforts against the military draft were illegal under the Espionage Act of 1918 and were not protected by his First Amendment right to freedom of speech. This court case not only took away Charles Schenck’s right to freedom of speech, but the rest of America’s too.
Americans took away the citizens liberty when this act was put in place. There were many riots about this new law.
Many were upset by this new law because the constitution states that you can have freedom of speech. The Sedition act took that right away for many people.
The Roaring Twenties:.l,oo
Palmer Raids: The Palmer Raids were a series of raids, arrests, and deportations of suspected radicals, most of whom never received a trial. These people were given a lack of liberty because they were deported and arrested for their point of view, and they were not even given a trial.
Ku Klux Klan: The KKK was a group violently opposed to immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and African Americans. The Ku Klux Klan gave these groups of people no liberty because they were so opposed to them, and they would do bad stuff to them as well.
American Civil Liberties Union: The ACLU is an organization created in the 1920’s, designed to protect the individual constitutional rights of all Americans. The American Civil Liberties Union helped to protect the rights of Americans who had very little liberty, and protect other people’s liberty.
General Strike: General Strike was a strike by workers in many different industries at the same time. These workers were on a strike because they were given very little, to no liberty.
Alice Paul: Alice Paul was the head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. Paul campaigned for equal rights because women were given a lack of liberty. For example, they were not allowed to vote, and they were given less rights then men.
This group of people violently opposed many religions and races.
Many workers went on strike at the same time because they felt that they were not given enough liberty.
Many people were arrested because they stated their opinion. They were sent to jail without a trial which is a lack liberty.