Gilded Age

John D. Rockefeller - owned Standard Oil company; master of horizontal integration; cornered the worldwide petroleum market

J.P. Morgan - banker who consolidated rival enterprises and brought them back to profitability; bought out Carnegie in US Steel for $400 million

Cornelius Vanderbilt - millionaire who made his money in steamboating; turned to a new career in railroading; became the railroad king; popularized the steel rail, which was safer

Andrew Carnegie - president of US Steel Corporation; pioneered the entrepreneurial tactic of vertical integration; donated $350 million in philanthropic

Jim Fiske/Jay Gould - printed new shares of stock of a company that Vanderbilt was trying to buy out, diluting all of the shares he was buying; Vanderbilt didn't get the company, and they made a ton of money

Thomas A. Edison - man who invented the phonograph, the mimeograph, the dictaphone and the moving picture; best known for inventing the light bulb in 1879

Alexander Graham Bell - man who invented the telephone in 1876; this invention allowed women to work on switchboards

Jacob Riis - photographer who showed the middle and upper class citizens the terrible conditions of the tenements

Boss Tweed - political boss who ran Tammany Hall in New York City; elected to congress in 1852; convicted of embezzlement in 1873, but escaped; later jailed again for a civil case

Thomas Nast - political cartoonist who exposed Boss Tweed, among other corrupt public officials.

Jane Addams - one of the first generation of college-educated women; established Hull House in Chicago in 1889; most prominent settlement house.

foremost champion of black education; ex-slave; called in 1881 to head the Tuskegee school for black.

W.E.B. DuBois - black leader who condemned Booker Washington; earned a Ph.D. at Harvard, first black man to do so; demanded complete equality for blacks

Ida Wells-Barnett - journalist and teacher who inspired black women to mount a nationwide antilynching crusade; helped launch the back women's club movement

Susan B. Anthony- helped found the National Woman Suffrage Association; attempted to vote in the 1872 presidential election

Elizabeth Cady Stanton - helped found the National Woman Suffrage Association; organized the first women's rights convention in 1848

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