The Production of Fabric

Steps involved in fabric production:

1) Fibers are usually twisted together and spun into yarns.

2.) Yarns are either woven or knitted to form fabric.

3.) color is added by dyeing or printing to enhance the fabric's appeal.

4.) A finish is applied to make the fabric suitable for its end use and to improve its appearance.

Weaving is the process of interlacing one or more sets of yarns at right angles on a loom. Plain weave is the simplest weave in which the weft yarn is passed over then under each warp yarn. A basket weave is one variation with the weft yarn passing over two and under two warp yarns each pass. Examples include chiffon, seersucker, and taffeta. Trill weave is a weave in which the weft yarn is passed over and under one, two, or three warp yarns beginning one warp yarn back on each new row. This technique is used for durability, this weave produces a diagonal design on the surface. Examples include denim and gabardine. Satin weave is a weave that produces a smooth, shiny-surfaced fabric resulting from passing the weft yarn over and under numerous warp yarns to create long floats such as satin or sateen. Other weaves include pile, dobby, jacquard, and leno weave.

Knitting is constructing fabric by looping yarns together. Weft knits are knits made with only one yarn that runs crosswise forming horizontal row of interlocking loops. Warp knits are knits made with several yarns creating loops that interlock in the lengthwise direction. Warp knit does not ravel, it has selvage edges, and examples are tricot and raschel knits.

In non-woven fabric, such as felt or garment interfacings, fibers are compacted together using moisture, heat, chemicals, friction, or pressure. Laces and nets are made by knotting, twisting, or looping yarns. Braided fabrics, like shoelaces or decorative trims, are created by interlacing three or more yarns to form a regular diagonal pattern down the length of the resulting cord. Bonded fabric, including ski wear or winter coats, is made by permanently fastening together two layers of fabric by lamination. Quilted fabric is a layer of padding or batting is sandwiched between two layers of fabric and held in place by stitching; such as bedspreads and placemats.

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