Chapter 1

psychology:the science of behavior and mental processes

empiricism: the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

structuralism: an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind

functionalism: a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

experimental psychology: the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

behaviorism: the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes

humanistic psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth

cognitive neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

nature-nurture issue: the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

natural selection: the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

levels of analysis: the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

biopsychosocial approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social cultural levels of analysis

biological psychology: a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological and psychological processes

evolutionary psychology: the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

psychodynamic psychology: a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

behavioral psychology: the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

cognitive psychology: the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

social cultural psychology: the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

developmental psychology: the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

educational psychology: the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

personality psychology: the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and acting

social psychology: the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

human factors psychology: the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments

clinical psychology: a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

Patients participating in the introspection trials were often told to hold a rose and describe what they felt.
Psychology was founded in Ancient Greece by philosophers such as Plato, Socrates and Aristotle.

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