European Colonization of Africa
*I focused on the French and Mali* The French came into Mali in 1892 as part of the African land grab race where all the European powers were looking to expand their countries by taking land in Africa, where in their opinion, nobody had claimed it. The French came in and named the land Soudan Français (French Sudan), which didn't sit well with the natives. In the early 1900's the French gained a strong grasp over the colony but resistance continued from the native people. In 1960 Mali finally gained its independence and continues to keep their peoples' culture and tradition to this day.
The fight for independence continues still, not so much in fighting the French, but among themselves in a way. Right after the people managed to kick out the French rule, the military leaders decided they should be in charge rather than the populace's belief of a civilian ruled nation. This occurred until the 1990's when more and more people backed the idea of a democratically ran nation, in the 2000's constitutions were drafted in order to limit the power and time in power elected officials had and since then things have ran relatively smooth for Mali. Apart from the civil strife of course, power seeking militia groups, democratic supporting militia groups, and the Taureg rebels fought over these issues until in 2013 a peace treaty was signed by both groups.