Eisenhower

Venkata Yadavalli

  • Eisenhower was 34th President of the United States (1953–1961)
  • Born on October 14, 1890 in Denison, Texas
  • Graduated from U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York in 1915
  • Political Party: Republican
  • Died March 28, 1969 in Washington, D.C.

Republican Party

  • Increased focus on communism and against containment
  • Resolving corruption and reform
  • Promised to End the Korean War by personally going there

Election of 1952

  • Ran with Vice President: Richard Nixon
  • Democrat opponent was Adlai E. Stevenson (Adlai the appeaser)
  • Nixon found to be involved in "slush fund", which caused Checkers Speech, allowing Nixon to stay
  • Embraced the television for campaigning

Results

  • Eisenhower: 33,936,234 popular votes
  • Stevenson: 27,314,992 popular votes
  • Eisenhower: 442 electoral votes
  • Stevenson: 89 electoral votes

Election of 1956

  • Largely a replay of Election of 1952
  • Eisenhower was in very poor health
  • Ran against Adlai Stevenson (Democrat) again

Results

  • Eisenhower: 35,590,472 popular votes
  • Stevenson: 26,022,752 popular votes
  • Eisenhower: 457 Electoral votes
  • Stevenson: 73 Electoral votes

The Cold War: A nonviolent period of tension between the US and the Soviet Union after World War II that led to a variety of proxy wars and conflicts

Eisenhower's Foreign Policy

  • "Policy of Boldness"
  • Super-bombers: Strategic Air Command with nuclear weapons
  • Increased negotiations with Khrushchev at the 1955 Geneva Summit was rejected
  • Warsaw Pact is signed by the Eastern countries

Vietnam

  • Americans were financing 80% of the French colonial war in Indochina
  • The Viet Minh captured Dienbienphu in March 1954
  • The Geneva Conference led to the splitting of Vietnam along 17th parallel

Middle East

  • Iran began to resist Western petroleum companies
  • CIA incited a coup that empowered Mohammed Reza Pahlevi
  • Led to future resentment of America and its allies
  • Suez Crisis: Nasser of Egypt nationalized the Suez canal, causing France and Britain to stage an offensive
  • America did not support, causing a withdrawal

Europe

  • Soviets agreed to end Austrian occupation
  • Violence in Hungary by Soviets led to the end of cooperation

Senator Joseph R. McCarthy:

  • Began as a senator from Wisconsin
  • Accused Secretary of State Dean Acheson of employing 205 Communists in 1950
  • Flourished during the Cold War era as a ruthless Red-hunter
  • Eisenhower left McCarthy alone and gave him control of personnel policy at the State Department
  • Lost much of his support after attacking the US Army
  • Largely represented the period of the Cold War Red-scare

Eisenhower's Policies

Eisenhower stated that In all those things which deal with people, be liberal" but with "people's money, or their economy, or their form of government, be conservative

  • Decreased Truman's military expenses (still 10% of GNP)
  • Transferred offshore oil field control to states
  • Encouraged private power company to compete with the TVA
  • Operation Wetback: 1 million Mexicans were returned to Mexico
  • Sought assimilation of Native Americans and cancel tribal preservation policies

Acceptance of New Deal and Fair Deal

  • Accepted Social Security, unemployment insurance, labor and farm programs
  • Made some New Deal programs permanent
  • Interstate Highway Act of 1956 ($27 billion dollars) to build 42 thousand miles of highways

Economy

  • Only managed to balance the budget only 3 times
  • Incurred the biggest peacetime deficit in history
  • Economic downturn in 1957-1958 caused 5 million jobless workers
  • Caused the merger of AF of L and the CIO in 1955

Vietnam War:

French colonial war

  • The Cold War led to an end to dreams of self-determination
  • Ho Chi Minh began to lean towards communism
  • The US continued to finance a French colonial war in Indochina (80% of costs/$1 billion)
  • The guerrilla warfare continued to defeat the French troops

Dienbienphu

  • March 1954, French troops were trapped in Dienbienphu, which was captured by the Viets
  • Led to the Geneva conference that split the country at the 17th parallel
  • Ho Chi Minh arranged an election in 2 years that never occurred, due to communists' victory
  • Ngo Dinh Diem controlled the Southern Pro-Western government, that would fall in the Vietnamese War

Space Race:

  • Sputnik I in October 4, 1957 (184 pounds) (Russian)
  • Sputnik II in November, 1957 (1,120 pounds) with a dog (Russian)
  • Eisenhower establishes the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  • In February 1958, America sent a 2.5 pound satellite
  • Led to the testing of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles

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