Developmental, Intellectual, and Learning Disabilities

By Shelby Loganbill

Intellectual Disabilities Defined

          Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in, adaptive behavior which covers many everyday social and practical skills. When testing for a Intellectual disability they first look at intellectual functioning which is referred to as intelligence the general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning and problem solving. Intellectual Functioning can be tested by using an IQ test a score of 70 to 75 indicates limitation in intellectual functioning. The second thing they look at when testing is adaptive behaviors like concept, social and practical skills. Other things they look at is the child's community environment which includes the child's peers and culture. When testing you not only look at a child's limitations but their strengths with support and a cooperative plan that student can grow and improve.

Learning Disabilities Defined

I really liked how this article defined a learning disability compared to the last one. They defined it as not a intellectual or motivational problem but that some children's brains are wired different than other children. The difference is how it affects how some children receive and process certain information. I love how this article also reinforces to parents that it is important to remember that their child is just as smart as the next kid. They just need to be taught in way that clicks with their particular learning style. By learning all about your child's particular learning disability you can help succeed in whatever life throws at them. There are a ton of different learning disabilities that can effect all areas like math,reading, spelling, social skills and more. It is important to look out for certain symptoms so you can catch the child's disability early so the sooner you catch it the sooner the child can reach his or her full potential. As a parent always trust your gut if you think their something wrong and your child is struggling fight for what your child needs and do not be afraid to ask for a second opinion.The first step is diagnosing a child it is a process It involves testing, history taking, and observation by a trained specialist. Finding a reputable referral is important first start with your child's school. Second step is to work with your child's school to make accommodations for your child and get specialized academic help. The most important step is to work with your child research the specifics about your child’s learning disability, research treatments, services, and new theories, pursue treatment and services at home and most important nurture your child’s strengths.

Developmental Disability

Developmental Disability is a disability that is developed before the person reaches twenty-two years of age, which constitutes a substantial disability to the affected individual, and is attributable to mental retardation or related conditions which include cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism or other neurological conditions when such conditions result in impairment of general intellectual functioning or adaptive behavior similar to that of a person with mental retardation.Impairment of general intellectual functioning means that the person has been determined to have an intellectual quotient equivalent which is two or more standard deviations below the mean and administered by a qualified professional.  Adaptive behavior similar to that of a person with mental retardation" means that the person has overall adaptive behavior which is two or more standard deviations below the mean in two or more skill areas as measured by an instrument which is standardized, appropriate to the person's living environment.

Specific Teaching Strategies  

Break learning tasks into small steps.

Probe regularly to check understanding.

Provide regular quality feedback.

Present information visually and verbally.

Use diagrams, graphics and pictures to support instruction.

Provide independent practice.

Model what you want students to do.

Clearly define and post classroom expectations for work and behavior.

Explicitly teach study and organizational skills.

Provide simple instructions (preferably one at a time).

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