(Also known as Aphasia)
The impairment of the availability to be able to communicate resulting from brain injury.
Did you know? Approximately one million Americans currently suffer from one of the various forms of Dysphasia.
- The patient can think and feel with perfect clarity because Dysphasia does not necessarily prevent proper cognitive function. The main impairment is the availability to communicate.
- Basic language functions affected: comprehension (understanding spoken language), naming (identifying items with words), and repetition (repeating words or phrases).
- Three most common types: expressive, repetitive and global.
Expressive Dysphasia (also known as Motor Dysphasia)
Impairments: Proper grammatical sequencing, proper word forming, articulation, and speech initiation.
Two types of expressive dysphasia:
- Broca's Dysphasia: This is caused by damage to the lower area of the premotor cortex in the Broca's area, which is located in the frontal lobe of the brain. http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/frontal... Speech is impossible, single words or full sentences are rare but can be possible through difficulty. Telegraphing is often used with this type of Dysphasia.
- Transcortial Dysphasia: This is caused by damage to the central region of the brain. https://kenowapsychology.wikispaces.com/Functions+... Impairment to repeat words, sentences and phrases.
Receptive Dysphasia (also known as Sensory Dysphasia)
Impairments: Comprehension and meaning of language
***Unlike Expressive Dysphasia, the patient can speak fluently and articulately, but words are meaningless, not able to be comprehended, and do not make sense.
Three types of receptive dysphasia:
- Wernicke's Dysphasia: This is caused by damage to the posterior superior temporal lobe of the brain, which is often referred to as the Wernicke's area. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superior_temporal_gyr... Impairment to understanding spoken words and distinctions between words may be mixed up.
- Anomic Dysphasia: This is caused by damage to the temporal parietal area of the brain. http://www.neuroskills.com/brain-injury/parietal-l...Impairments are being unable to correctly name people or objects and pausing or substituting words. However, the patient will exhibit few language impairments.
- Conduction Dysphasia: This is caused by damage to the upper temporal lobe and the lower parietal.https://appsychtextbk.wikispaces.com/Cerebral+Cort... Impairments include repeated words, phrases, or sentences and unable to describe people or objects.
Impairments: Patient's language skills are disrupted
- This is caused by damage to the anterior and posterior regions of the brain. (Anterior referring to inside, posterior referring to outside of the brain.
Causes: trauma to the brain, stroke (most common), infection, direct trauma, and brain tumors.
Symptoms: difficulty remembering words, difficulty with naming objects and people, speaking in complete and meaningful sentences, reading or writing, expressing thoughts and feelings, understanding spoken language, using incorrect or jumbled words, and using words in the wrong order.
Diagnosis (tests that are used): comprehensive examinations, Porch Index of Speech Ability, Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
- no medical or surgical cure
- speech therapies
- group sessions
Prevention: healthy diet, no smoking and avoiding high blood pressure to prevent brain injury and stroke.
Reference: Fryer, J. (2006, January 1). Dysphasia. Retrieved January 17, 2015, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Dysphasia.aspx