Gynec-o=woman/female      -logo=study      obstetro/o=pregnancy/childbirth     neo-new


The female reproductive system is designed to:

produce the female egg cells necessary for reproduction, called the ova.

transport the ova to the site of fertilization.

Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes.

The next step for the fertilized egg is to implant into the walls of the uterus, beginning the initial stages of pregnancy.

If fertilization and/or implantation does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate (the monthly shedding of the uterine lining).

In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.

The function of external structures:

1  enable sperm to enter the body

2  protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms.

The main external(vulva)structures of the female reproductive system include:

  • Labia majora: The labia majora enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the labia majora are covered with hair.
  • Labia minora: Literally translated as "small lips," the labia minora can be very small. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).
  • Bartholin's glands: These glands are located beside the vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion. Can become infected! Incise and drain-see pic below
  • Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin,  Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.
  • Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal.
  • perineum-area between vagina and anus
  • hymen-thin membrane covering vaginal opening-broken apart from tampons/1st intercourse
  • Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus..
  • Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones.What hormone?m
  • Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the egg to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes.
  • The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants into the lining of the uterine wall.



What is PID?

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs. It is a complication often caused by some STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Other infections that are not sexually transmitted can also cause PID.

How do I get PID?

You are more likely to get PID if you

  • Have an STD and do not get treated;
  • Have more than one sex partner;
  • Have a sex partner who has sex partners other than you;
  • Have had PID before;
  • Are sexually active and are age 25 or younger;
  • Douche;
  • Use an intrauterine device (IUD) for birth control.

How can I reduce my risk-he only way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

  • Pain in your lower abdomen;
  • Fever;
  • An unusual discharge with a bad odor from your vagina;
  • Pain and/or bleeding when you have sex;
  • Burning sensation when you urinate; or
  • Bleeding between periods.

You should

  • Be examined by your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms;
  • Promptly see a doctor if you think you or your sex partner(s) have or were exposed to an STD;
  • Promptly see a doctor if you have any genital symptoms such as an unusual sore, a smelly discharge, burning when peeing, or bleeding between periods;
  • Get a test for chlamydia every year if you are sexually active and 25 years of age or younger;
  • Have an honest and open talk with your health care provider if you are sexually active and ask whether you should be tested for other STDs.

Can PID be cured?

Yes, if PID is diagnosed early, it can be treated.

However, treatment won’t undo any damage that has already happened to your reproductive system. The longer you wait to get treated, the more likely it is that you will have complications from PID. While taking antibiotics, your symptoms may go away before the infection is cured. Even if symptoms go away, you should finish taking all of your medicine.

Be sure to tell your recent sex partner(s), so they can get tested and treated for STDs, too. It is also very important that you and your partner both finish your treatment before having any kind of sex so that you don’t re-infect each other.

You can get PID again if you get infected with an STD again. Also, if you have had PID before, you have a higher chance of getting it again.

What happens if I don't get treated?

If diagnosed and treated early, the complications of PID can be prevented. Some of the complications of PID are

  • Formation of scar tissue both outside and inside the fallopian tubes that can lead to tubal blockage;
  • Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the womb);
  • Infertility (inability to get pregnant);
  • Long-term pelvic/abdominal pain.

All STD Fact SheetsWhere can I get more information

Chlamydia-Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. It can cause cervicitis in women and urethritis and proctitis in both men and women. Chlamydial infections in women can lead to serious consequences including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

It is estimated that 1 in 15 sexually active females aged 14-19 years has chlamydia.5

Chlamydia is transmitted through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner. Ejaculation does not have to occur for chlamydia to be transmitted or acquired. Chlamydia can also be spread perinatally from an untreated mother to her baby during childbirth, resulting in ophthalmia neonatorum (conjunctivitis) or pneumonia in some exposed infants.

In women, the bacteria initially infect the cervix, where the infection may cause signs and symptoms of cervicitis (e.g., mucopurulent endocervical discharge, easily induced endocervical bleeding), and sometimes the urethra, which may result in signs and symptoms of urethritis (e.g., pyuria, dysuria, urinary frequency). Infection can spread from the cervix to the upper reproductive tract (i.e., uterus, fallopian tubes), causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which may be asymptomatic (“subclinical PID”)23 or acute, with typical symptoms of abdominal and/or pelvic pain, along with signs of cervical motion tenderness, and uterine or adnexal tenderness on examination.

Men who are symptomatic typically have urethritis, with a mucoid or watery urethral discharge and dysuria. A minority of infected men develop epididymitis (with or without symptomatic urethritis), presenting with unilateral testicular pain, tenderness, and swelling.24

Chlamydia can be easily cured with antibiotics.

Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of getting or giving chlamydia.53 The surest way to avoid chlamydia is to abstain from vaginal, anal, and oral sex, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.


Genital herps


HSV-2 is transmitted sexually (genital-to-genital, oral-to-genital, or genital-to-oral) and perinatally (mother to child). HSV-1 is usually transmitted via a nonsexual route; however, an increasing proportion of genital herpes is due to HSV-1.

The majority of genital herpes infections are transmitted by persons unaware that they have the infection, or who are asymptomatic when transmission occurs.


Transmission of HSV usually occurs through close contact with a person who is shedding virus at a peripheral site, mucosal surface, or in genital or oral secretions.

HSV penetrates susceptible mucosal surfaces or abraded cracks in the skin.

After mucosal inoculation (in genital infection), the virus is transported along peripheral nerve axons to the nerve cell bodies’

Reactivation induces viral replication and is precipitated by multiple known factors (e.g., trauma, fever, ultraviolet light, stress, etc.), as well as unknown factors.

The reactivated virus migrates centrifugally to mucosal surfaces by way of the peripheral sensory nerves, where it may cause a cutaneous outbreak of herpetic lesions

First Episode Primary infection without Treatment

Clinical manifestations of primary (initial) infection without treatment are characterized by the occurrence of numerous bilateral painful genital lesions. These lesions are more severe, last longer, and have higher titers of virus than recurrent infections.

Typical lesion progression: papules vesicles pustules ulcers crusts healed. Patients may present at any stage and lesions may be atypical (e.g., fissures).

Often associated with systemic symptoms, including fever, headache, malaise, myalgia; and may cause urinary retention in women.

Illness lasts 2–4 weeks. Painful, numerous, bilateral genital lesions last an average of 11–12 days.

Urethritis and/or meatitis may be part of the clinical syndrome and may cause a clear mucoid discharge.

Over 80% of women with primary HSV report dysuria, both external and internal.


Transmission of HSV usually occurs through close contact with a person who is shedding virus at a peripheral site, mucosal surface, or in genital or oral secretions.

HSV penetrates susceptible mucosal surfaces or abraded cracks in the skin.

After mucosal inoculation (in genital infection), the virus is transported along peripheral nerve axons to the nerve cell bodies’ sacral ganglia.

Virus remains latent indefinitely in the paraspinous ganglia.

Reactivation induces viral replication and is precipitated by multiple known factors (e.g., trauma, fever, ultraviolet light, stress, etc.), as well as unknown factors.

Local symptoms are predominantly pain, itching, dysuria, vaginal or urethral discharge, and tender inguinal adenopathy (80%).

Herpes proctitis may be characterized by pain, discharge, constipation with or without symptoms of autonomic dysfunction, and severe ulceration on anoscopy.

Urethral involvement

Men with first-episode HSV have a positive urethral culture in 33% of cases.

Urethritis and/or meatitis may be part of the clinical syndrome and may cause a clear mucoid discharge.

Over 80% of women with primary HSV report dysuria, both external and internal.

*Recurrent Infection Without Treatment

Prodromal symptoms (localized tingling, irritation) are common and begin 12–24 hours before lesions and sometimes occur without lesions ("false prodrome").

Duration of episodes is shorter than in a primary infection. Painful genital lesions last four to six days. Average duration of viral shedding is four days.

Lesions tend to be unilateral and much less extensive than with primary infection.

Symptoms tend to be less severe.

All patients with genital, anal or perianal ulcers should be evaluated with a serologic test for syphilis in addition to a diagnostic evaluation for genital herpes.

Healthcare providers frequently must treat patients before test results are available, because early treatment decreases the possibility of ongoing transmission and because successful treatment of genital herpes depends on prompt initiation of therapy.

*Principles of Management of Genital Herpes

Counseling- about the natural history of genital herpes, sexual and perinatal transmission, and methods to reduce transmission is integral to clinical management.

Antiviral chemotherapy offers clinical benefits to most symptomatic patients and is the mainstay of management.

Partially controls symptoms and signs of herpes episodes when used to treat first clinical and recurrent episodes, or when used as daily suppressive therapy

Does not eradicate latent virus

*syphilis-Syphilis Definition

Syphilis is a sexually-acquired infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Syphilis progresses in stages and may become a chronic infection if untreated.

Disease is characterized by episodes of active disease interrupted by periods of latent infection.

Incubation period is estimated to be between 10 and 90 days (average three weeks).

Early clinical manifestations (primary and secondary stages) primarily involve the skin and mucosal surfaces, although secondary syphilis is a systemic illness. Latent disease has no clinical signs or symptoms. Late manifestations may affect virtually any organ system.

Neurosyphilis can occur at any stage of syphilis.

An infected individual is primarily contagious to sex partners during the primary and secondary stages of his/her infection when infectious lesions or rash are present and much less so in subsequent stages.

Historically, syphilis was distributed widely throughout the U.S. but declined rapidly with the introduction of penicillin therapy and broad-based public health programs after the 1940s.

During 1986–90, there was a dramatic 83% rise in the incidence of infectious (primary and secondary) syphilis. Some researchers have linked this increase to the use of crack cocaine. Since then, reported cases of syphilis declined 89.7% to an all-time low in 2000.

By the late 1990s, syphilis rates in the U.S. had declined to a point where public health authorities declared syphilis elimination a feasible goal.

CDC developed a national plan to eliminate syphilis which was revised in May 2006. Syphilis remains an important problem in the South. Increases in cases among MSM (including men having sex with both men and women) have occurred and have been characterized by high rates of HIV co-infection and high-risk sexual behaviors. \

*Clinical manifestations:

A rash occurs in 75%–100% of secondary syphilis cases. The rash can be macular, papular, squamous, pustular (rarely), or a combination. Rashes are usually nonpruritic, and they characteristically involve the palms and soles

Malaise is a common

Eventually the host suppresses the infection enough so that no lesions are clinically apparent. The only evidence is a positive serologic test for syphilis.

Early forms of neurosyphilis usually occur a few months to a few years after infection.

Clinical manifestations can include  a stroke-like syndrome with seizures.

*Tertiary (Late) Syphilis

Clinically, this final stage may manifest as gummas ,lesions which destroy soft tissue, cartilage and bone ,

most lesions respond to penicillin therapy.

Gummatous lesions may occur in skeletal, spinal, and mucosal areas, eyes, and viscera (lung, stomach, liver, genitals, breast, brain, and heart). The average onset is 10–15 years after infection.

The destructive lesions can clinically mimic carcinoma.

Laws and regulations in all states require that persons diagnosed with syphilis be reported to public health authorities. The follow-up of patients with early syphilis is a public health priority.

Cervical Cancer/Breast cancer/Endometriosis/Ovarian Cysts

Cervical cancer is preventable, treatable, curable if caught before it spreads to other organs

Cervical cancer-Cancer of the cervix detected by a pap smear, there are cell changes that show abnormal but pre cancerous before it ever becomes cancer it is removed.

Caused by environmental factors and Human Papilloma virus-sexually transmitted, no s/s, 80% of people carry, not all carriers get cancer

Detection/screening-Pap smear, diagnosing-colposcopy



Abnormal cervical cell changes rarely cause symptoms. But you may have symptoms if those cell changes grow into cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer may include:

  • Bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, such as bleeding between menstrual periods, after sex, or after menopause.
  • Pain in the lower belly or pelvis.
  • Pain during sex.
  • Vaginal discharge that isn't normal.

LEEP-The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop to cut out abnormal tissue.

Breast Pathology

Breasts have mostly glandular tissue for milk glands

Breasts have fatty and fibrous tissue

Also have lactiferous ducts to carry milk to nipple

The dark pigmented circle around nipple is called areola-darkens during pregnancy

After the baby is birthed the pituitary gland releases oxytocin, a hormone that stimulates the breast to release milk (liquid gold) colostrum. 48-72 hrs after delivery it is milk.

Breast Cancer vs fibrocystic changes-Fibrocystic breasts are composed of tissue that feels lumpy or rope-like in texture.

Malignant tumor of the  breast-removed via 'lumpectomy' or mastecetomy

Spreads(metastatic)to other sites, to axilla first, then skin and chest wall

Mammogram-x-ray of breast-

Ultrasound-differentiate solid vs cystic if seen on mammo

breast MRI-magnetic resonance imaging

If positive for cancer-treat/remove

Endometriosis       endo-within         metri/o-uterus         -sis condition of

Endometrium is mucous membrane lining of uterus


often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus (endometrial implant). Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, bowel or the tissue lining your pelvis.continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped.

Treatment-hormone therapy(bcp), surgery, remove uterus

*Ovarian cysts-Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets within or on the surface of an ovary. Women have two ovaries — each about the size and shape of an almond — located on each side of the uterus. Eggs (ova) develop and mature in the ovaries and are released in monthly cycles during your childbearing years.

Most cysts don't cause any symptoms and go away on their own. A large ovarian cyst can cause abdominal discomfort.

most are small and resolve on their own------but

yikes-this is big

Dilation and currettage -D & C-

  1. Dilation and curettage (D&C) is a procedure to remove tissue from inside your uterus. Doctors perform dilation and curettage to diagnose and treat certain uterine conditions — such as heavy bleeding — or to clear the uterine lining after a miscarriage or abortion.

Male Reproductive System

Tentative Start Date: 4/20/15

Male Reproduction

The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is:

  • To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)
  • To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex-
  • To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system-


Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. The glans, the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin, also has a number of nerve endings. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis.

This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. As it fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection.

Semen, which contains sperm (reproductive cells), eject (ejaculate) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm. AT 28 MILES PER HOUR! 300 million sperm in 1 ejaculation, lives 3-5 days!

  • Scrotum: This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a "climate control system" for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther away from the body to cool the temperature. HOW SMART ARE THEY?
  • Testicles (testes): These are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubes are responsible for producing sperm cells.
  • Internal parts of reproductive system, also called accessory organs, include the following:
    • Epididymis: The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It transports and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.
    • Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to outside of the body, in preparation for ejaculation.
    • Ejaculatory ducts: These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles (see below). The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
    • Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of ejaculating semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
    • Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy to help them move. The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man's ejaculatory fluid.]
    • Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
    • Bulbourethral glands: Also called Cowper's glands, these are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

Diseases and disorders of male reproductive system

DX/Disorders of the Penis

Erectile dysfunction, or ED, is the inability to achieve or sustain an erection suitable for sexual intercourse. Causes include medications, chronic illnesses, poor blood flow to the penis, drinking too much alcohol, or being too tired.

A penis pump is one of a few treatment options for the inability to get or maintain an erection sufficient for sex (erectile dysfunction). A penis pump consists of a plastic tube that fits over the penis, a hand or battery-powered pump attached to the tube, and a band that fits around the base of the penis once it is erect (constriction ring).

A penis pump is sometimes called a vacuum pump or a vacuum constriction device

Medications- Viagra, cialis-  those commercials!

Hypospadias (hi-poe-SPAY-dee-us) is a condition in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis, instead of at the tip. The urethra is the tube through which urine drains from your bladder and exits your body.

You may feel distressed if your son is born with hypospadias. However, hypospadias is common and doesn't cause difficulty in caring for your infant. In fact, surgery usually restores the normal appearance of your child's penis. With successful treatment of hypospadias, most males can eventually have normal adult sexual function.

DX/Disorders of Testes

1 Testicular Cancer-

Testicular cancer typically develops in one or both testicles in young men, but it can occur in older men as well. It is a highly treatable and usually curable type of cancer.

But testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35.

Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include:

  • A lump or enlargement in either testicle
  • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin
  • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum
  • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum
  • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts
  • Back pain

Cancer usually affects only one testicle.

Do Your Testicular Exams!!!!

2 Cryptorchidism-is a testicle that hasn't moved into its proper position in the bag of skin hanging below the penis (scrotum) before birth.

An undescended testicle is uncommon in general, but quite common among baby boys born prematurely.

The vast majority of the time, the undescended testicle moves into its proper position on its own, within the first few months of life

I heard a song at prom that said-"orchihydrosis!" Did you?

DX/Disorders of the Prostate

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia BPH-is an enlarged prostate gland . The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. As the prostate gets bigger, it may squeeze or partly block the urethra. This often causes problems with urinating.

BPH occurs in almost all men as they age. BPH is not cancer. An enlarged prostate can be a nuisance. But it is usually not a serious problem. About half of all men older than 75 have some symptoms.

BPH causes urinary problems such as:

  • Trouble getting a urine stream started and completely stopped (dribbling).
  • Often feeling like you need to urinate. This feeling may even wake you up at night.
  • A weak urine stream.
  • A sense that your bladder is not completely empty after you urinate.

In a small number of cases, BPH may cause the bladder to be blocked, making it impossible or extremely hard to urinate. This problem may cause backed-up urine (urinary retention), leading to bladder infections or stones, or kidney damage.


Chlamydia- Chlamydia is a common STD that can infect both men and women. It can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman's reproductive system, making it difficult or impossible for her to get pregnant later on. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb)

How Did that happen???

You can get chlamydia by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has chlamydia, even if he does not ejaculate (cum).

If you’ve had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can still get infected again if you have unprotected sex with someone who has chlamydia.

If you are pregnant, you can give chlamydia to your baby during childbirth. Thanks mom!

How do you NOT get?

The only way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

If you are sexually active, you can do the following things to lower your chances of getting chlamydia:

  • Being in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and has negative STD test results;
  • Using latex condoms the right way every time you have sex. Men rarely have health problems linked to chlamydia. Infection sometimes spreads to the tube that carries sperm from the testicles, causing pain and fever. Rarely, chlamydia can prevent a man from being able to have children.
  • Men rarely have health problems linked to chlamydia. Infection sometimes spreads to the tube that carries sperm from the testicles, causing pain and fever. Rarely, chlamydia can prevent a man from being able to have children.

What will it look like?


If you are pregnant and have chlamydia, you can pass the infection to your baby during delivery. This could cause an eye infection or pneumonia in your newborn.



Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower-food again!


PSA-Prostate specific antigen-

  • The PSA test measures the blood level of PSA, a protein that is produced by the prostate gland. The higher a man’s PSA level, the more likely it is that he has prostate cancer. However, there are additional reasons for having an elevated PSA level.

Semen Analysis -A semen analysis measures the amount of semen a man produces and determines the number and quality of sperm in the semen sample.

Why It Is Done

A semen analysis is done to determine whether:

  • A man has a reproductive problem that is causing infertility.
  • A vasectomy has been successful.
  • The reversal of a vasectomy has been successful.

And how do we obtain the sample?

You will need to produce a semen sample, usually by ejaculating into a clean sample cup. You can do this in a private room or in a bathroom at your doctor's office.

If you live close to your doctor's office or clinic, you may be able to collect the semen sample at home and then transport it to the office or clinic for testing.

  • The most common way to collect semen is by masturbation, directing the semen into a clean sample cup. Do not use a lubricant.
  • You can collect a semen sample during sex by withdrawing your penis from your partner just before ejaculating (coitus interruptus). You then ejaculate into a clean sample cup.

Allrighty then......Producing a semen sample does not cause any discomfort. But you may feel embarrassed about the method used to collect it.


Circumcision is the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis.

Circumcision is fairly common for newborn boys in certain parts of the world, including the United States. Circumcision after the newborn period is possible, but it's a more complex procedure.

For some families, circumcision is a religious ritual. Circumcision can also be a matter of family tradition, personal hygiene or preventive health care. For others, however, circumcision seems unnecessary or disfiguring


TURP-for treatment of BPH

Vasectomy-A vasectomy is a procedure to cause permanent sterility in a man by preventing the transport of sperm out of the testes. A small incision is made in the scrotum and each vas deferens is tied off and cut apart preventing sperm from being released within the ejaculate. The small skin incision is stitched closed and the surgery does not affect a man's sexual function.

WAIT!!!!!We Made a mistake! We want more babies!!! Now What?


Vasovasostomy- break it break it down now!

Vasectomy reversal is surgery to undo a vasectomy. It reconnects the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles into the semen. After a successful vasectomy reversal, sperm are again present in the semen and you may be able to get your partner pregnant


According to current recommendations, digital rectal examinations should be performed yearly; however, they may be performed more frequently, depending on individual patients’ conditions and needs. No special materials are required, other than a finger (with nails trimmed appropriately and any jewelry removed), a rectum,personal protective equipment (gloves), and generous lubrication.

Word Parts

Andro-           Orchi/o, orchid/o -        sperm-         terato-           -genesis

Start 5/4    Study guide quiz wed 5/6        Test 5/8

The Menstrual Cycle

What is a menstrual cycle? Menarche is 1st cycle   men=menses    arche =beginning

The menstrual cycle is the series of changes a woman's body goes through to prepare for a pregnancy.

  About once a month, the uterus grows a new lining (endometrium) to get ready for a fertilized egg .

When there is no fertilized egg to start a pregnancy, the uterus sheds its lining. This is the monthly menstrual bleeding that women have from their early teen years until menopause, around age 50.

The 28 Day Cycle

Day 1-is the day the bleeding starts     Days 1-5 menstrual period

Day 6-12 Body gets ready for ovulation

Day 13-14 OVULATION Where does this happen? Days to get pregnant=2ish q month

Day 15-28 Uterus waits for fertilized egg to be implanted in uterus, if none, PMS begins about day 26 to day 28,and period starts again as Day 1.

WE ARE NOT PROGRAMMED COMPUTERS! So it is not exact in every body!!!

What controls the menstrual cycle?

Your hormones control your menstrual cycle.

During each cycle, your brain's hypothalamus and pituitary gland send hormone signals back and forth with your ovaries.

The hormones estrogen and progesterone play the biggest roles in how the uterus changes during each cycle.

  • Estrogen builds up the lining of the uterus.
  • A drop in progesterone (along with estrogen) causes the lining to break down. This is when your period starts

PMS=premenstrual syndrome

WHY? Drop in estrogen and progesterone levels d/t no conception

S/S PMS=depression, breast tenderness, irritable,water retention, increased hunger

Disorders of Menstrual Cycle

Dysmenorrhea-   dys=    rrhea=discharge        painful periods

Menorrhagia   men/o=menses -rrhage=blood -ia   condition abn long periods

Metrorrhagia   metro-uterus   bleeding between periods

menometrorrhagia= break it down!

Treatments include BCP's, D&C, hysterectomy

Menopause-around age 50-1 year amenorrhea=menopause  May use HRT for s/s 



How did that happen?

When the sperm hits the egg-


Primipara vs multipara

Uterus becomes an abdominal organ as fetus grows.....pushes everything out of the way

Placenta-the body grows this organ to nourish fetus WOW!!

Signs and symptoms of pregnancy

Breast tenderness/amenorrhea/beta hcg/nausea/increase in blood volume

Side Effects of pregnancy

Urinary frequency/constipation/feet grow!(not really grow) relaxin hormone/waddle walk

Can you control what you have?

the fact that female sperm live longer and swim slower than male sperm. If you have sex a few days before you ovulate the longer living and slower female sperm will be waiting for the egg. If you have sex just before ovulation the faster pushier male sperm will win the race.

Complications of Pregnancy

Pre-eclampsia-high blood pressure during pregnancy

Placenta previa-

Placenta abruption-separates from wall of uterus-vomit trust your gut!ask hudecek

Labor Contractions dilate the cervix-the gummy lifesaver! from 0 to 10 cm

Normal 1st labor 12-18 hrs      Next time its about half

Crowning means head is showing--if its not a head your going to the OR!

Shoulder Dystocia-you have 5 min before brain damage is not reversible.

Not always a big baby to have this! hate this


APGAR score-A=color,P=heart rate,G=response, A=activity, R=resp effort 0-10

Done at 1 and 5 minutes of birth-almost  no one is a 10!

Stage 3-placenta delivery


Postpartum hemmorrhage-Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality

Signs and symptoms

increased heart rate, feeling faint upon standing, and an increased breath rate.As more blood is lost the women may feel cold, their blood pressure may drop, and they may become restless or unconscious. The condition can occur up to six weeks following delivery.

The most common cause is poor contraction of the uterus following childbirth. Not all of the placenta being delivered, a tear of the uterus, or poor blood clotting

If all of this does not work-to OR!!! STAT

YAY we saved her-now she is postpartum


STD'S-Sexually Transmitted Diseases-eeww!


Most people who have chlamydia don’t know it since the disease often has no symptoms.

  • Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STD in the United States.
  • lthough it is easy to cure, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant if left untreated.
  • If you are pregnant, you can give chlamydia to your baby during childbirth.
  • How can I reduce my risk of getting chlamydia?The only way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex
  • Women with symptoms may notice
    • An abnormal vaginal discharge;,A burning sensation when urinating.
    Symptoms in men can include
    • A discharge from their penis;, A burning sensation when urinating;
    • Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (although this is less common).
    Men and women can also get infected with chlamydia in their rectum, either by having receptive anal sex, or by spread from another infected site (such as the vagina). While these infections often cause no symptoms, they can cause
    • Rectal pain;
    • Discharge;
    • Bleeding

What is gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can infect both men and women. It can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and throat. It is a very common infection, especially among young people ages 15-24 years.

A pregnant woman with gonorrhea can give the infection to her baby during childbirth

How do I know if I have gonorrhea?

Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. However, men who do have symptoms, may have:

  • A burning sensation when urinating;,A white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis;
  • Painful or swollen testicles (although this is less common).

Most women with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they are often mild and can be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, even if they don’t have any symptoms.
Symptoms in women can include:

  • Painful or burning sensation when urinating;,Increased vaginal discharge;
  • Vaginal bleeding between periods.

What happens if I don’t get treated?

Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men.
In women, untreated gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Some of the complications of PID are

In men, gonorrhea can cause a painful condition in the tubes attached to the testicles. In rare cases, this may cause a man to be sterile, or prevent him from being able to father a child.

Rarely, untreated gonorrhea can also spread to your blood or joints. This condition can be life-threatening.

Chlamydia and gonorrhea are important preventable causes of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Untreated, about 10-15% of women with chlamydia will develop PID. Chlamydia can also cause fallopian tube infection without any symptoms. PID and “silent” infection in the upper genital tract may cause permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissues, which can lead to infertility.

  • An estimated 2.86 million cases of chlamydia and 820,000 cases of gonorrhea occur annually in the United States.*
  • Most women infected with chlamydia or gonorrhea have no symptoms.

What is genital herpes?

Genital herpes is an STD caused by two types of viruses. The viruses are called herpes simplex type 1 and herpes simplex type 2.

Fluids found in a herpes sore carry the virus, and contact with those fluids can cause infection. You can also get herpes from an infected sex partner who does not have a visible sore or who may not know he or she is infected because the virus can be released through your skin and spread the infection to your sex partner(s).

Herpes infection can be passed from you to your unborn child and cause a potentially deadly infection (neonatal herpes). It is important that you avoid getting herpes during pregnancy.

Genital herpes sores usually appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals, rectum or mouth. The blisters break and leave painful sores that may take weeks to heal. These symptoms are sometimes called “having an outbreak.” The first time someone has an outbreak they may also have flu-like symptoms such as fever, body aches, or swollen glands.

Repeat outbreaks of genital herpes are common, especially during the first year after infection. Repeat outbreaks are usually shorter and less severe than the first outbreak. Although the infection can stay in the body for the rest of your life, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years.

People who have STDs are more likely to get HIV, when compared to people who do not have STDs.

What activities can put me at risk for both STDs and HIV?

  • Having anal, vaginal, or oral sex without a condom;
  • Having multiple sex partners;
  • Having anonymous sex partners;
  • Having sex while under the influence of drugs or alcohol can lower inhibitions and result in greater sexual risk-taking.

syphilis is an STD that can have very serious complications when left untreated.

  • Syphilis is easy to cure in its early stages.
  • Pregnant women should be tested regularly for syphilis because infection with syphilis can cause serious problems in a baby.
  • In 2013, 75% of the reported primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis cases were among men who have sex with men (MSM).

What does syphilis look like?

Syphilis has been called ‘the great imitator’ because it has so many possible symptoms, many of which look like symptoms from other diseases.

The painless syphilis sore that you would get after you are first infected can be confused for an ingrown hair, zipper cut, or other seemingly harmless bump.

The non-itchy body rash that develops during the second stage of syphilis can show up on the palms of your hands and soles of your feet, all over your body, or in just a few places. You could also be infected with syphilis and have very mild symptoms or none at all.

An infected baby may be born without signs or symptoms of disease. However, if not treated immediately, the baby may develop serious problems within a few weeks. Untreated babies can have health problems such as cataracts, deafness, or seizures, and can die.

Primary Stage

During the first (primary) stage of syphilis, you may notice a single sore, but there may be multiple sores. The sore is the location where syphilis entered your body. The sore is usually firm, round, and painless. Because the sore is painless, it can easily go unnoticed. The sore lasts 3 to 6 weeks and heals regardless of whether or not you receive treatment.

Even though the sore goes away, you must still receive treatment so your infection does not move to the secondary stage.

Secondary Stage

During the secondary stage, you may have skin rashes and/or sores in your mouth, vagina, or anus

Latent and Late Stages

The latent stage of syphilis begins when all of the symptoms you had earlier disappear. If you do not receive treatment, you can continue to have syphilis in your body for years without any signs or symptoms.

Most people with untreated syphilis do not develop late stage syphilis. However, when it does happen it is very serious and would occur 10–30 years after your infection began. Symptoms of the late stage of syphilis include difficulty coordinating your muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, blindness, and dementia. In the late stages of syphilis, the disease damages your internal organs and can result in death.