Unit 2: Research Methods
A scientific theory explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. By linking facts and bridging then to deeper principles, a theory offers a useful summary.
A theory contains a hypothesis, experiment, observation, data collection, and analysis.
- Hypothesis: Allows us to test, revise, and/or reject a new theory.
- Experiment: Helps us test our hypothesis - In psychology, psychologist observe and describe behaviors using case studies and surveys. Case studies examine one individual in depth while surveys look at many individuals in less depth.
- Observation: A method that records behavior shown during the experiment. -Naturalistic Observation is when a researcher observes and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations, without trying to manipulate and control the situation
- Data Collection: Aims to present acquired information in a neat and organize fashion. - Psychologists see the correlation between data acquired during the experiment and observation. Correlation is a positive and negative comparison of one thing to another and therefore helps psychologists assume how well one predicts the other. -Mean: Average Score -Median: Middle Score -Mode: Most Frequent Score -Range: Difference between the Greatest and Lowest Score -Standard Deviation: Calculated Measure of How Much Scores Vary From the Mean -Independent Variable: The Experimental Factor that is Manipulated, the Variable Who's Affect is being Studied. -Dependent Variable: The Experimental Factor being measured -Confounding Variables: Other Factors that Could Affect the experiment To prevent confounding variables from influencing test result... researchers must use random assignment, placebos and the double blind procedure.
- Data Analysis: process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making.