The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earththat is retained by Earth's gravity
troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains half of the Earth's atmosphere.
Many jet aircrafts fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable. Also, the ozone layer absorbs harmful rays from the Sun.
which can be the coldest naturally occurring place on Earth with temperatures below 130
Temperatures are highly dependent on solar activity, and can rise to 2,000 °C
s a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planetary body where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas
all the layers
The atmosphere has a mass of about 5×1018 kg, three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner
how they form
The quick version is that the first atmosphere came from volcanoes and was mostly water and carbon dioxide. As it cooled down it rained and made the oceans and a lot of the carbon dioxide dissolved. Later some types of algae started making oxygen, until eventually the atmosphere was like it is today.