Definition: a poem whose meaning is conveyed through its graphic shape or pattern on the printed page
Concrete poems started in Germany and Brazil. It was used by the Noigandres group, which included the de Campos brothers and Decio Pignatari. Over the year of the 1960s, it exploded across Europe, America and Japan. By the late 1960s, poet Jonathan Williams proclaimed: “If there is such a thing as a worldwide movement in the art of poetry, Concrete is it.” The word "concrete" was started from Eugen Gomringer, who borrowed the term from his mentor, Max Bill.
Mary Ellen Solt