Cell: The smallest structure of an organism, typically microscopic and having of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

  • Plant Cells have a cell wall, but animal cells don't.
  • Plant cells are rectanglular, animal cells are circular.
  • Plant cells have one or more small vacuoles (much smaller than plant cells). Animal cells have one, large central vacuole taking up 90% of cell volume.
  • Plant cells have centrolies only present in lower plant forms. Animal cells have centrolies in all cells.

Types of Cells

Muscle: Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.

Nerve: Your nervous system contains millions of nerve cells, called neurons. Neurons are highly specialised to transmit messages from one part of your body to another. All neurons have a cell body and one or more fibres.

Bone: There are two categories of bone cells. Osteoclasts are in the first category. They resorb (dissolve) the bone. The other category is the osteoblast family, which consists of osteoblasts that form bone, osteocytes that help maintain bone, and lining cells that cover the surface of the bone.

Cartilage:By virtue of the smooth surface of hyaline cartilage, it provides a sliding area which reduces friction, thus easing bone movement.

Secretory: The secretary vesicle is a type of transporter organelle that is used to deliver particles within the cell or from the cell to outside of the cell.

Epithelial:Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body. Many glands are made up of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells have functions that include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport and detection of sensation.

Adipose: Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body.

Blood: Blood has to major functions, transporting oxygen, carbon Dioxide, and food molecules through the body. And to defend the body against infections and other foriegn materials.

Tissues and Organ functions

Cells are a structure of life that makes up tissues. Tissues in turn make up organs and multiple organs make up organ systems to carry out life tasks.

Human systems

Digestive system: The digestive system is meant to perform the function of turning food into the energy we need. This system includes the mouth, esophagus, anus, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, large intestine and the rectum.

Circulatory system: The circulatory system is made of vessels and muscles that help control the flow of blood around the body. This system consists of the head, arms, lungs, liver, stomach, kidneys and legs.

Respiratory system: The system of organs that function in respiration. This system includes the nasal passage, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart and ribs.

Labeled Paramecium

A paramecium looks like a cell but it functions by itself. It has two nucli, a small one and a large one.



  • Two genotypes form the above picture are G and g.
  • If G=green flowers and g=yellow flowers on the above picture, the three green flowers and one yellow flowers are possible.
  • Two homozygeous outcomes from the above picture could be GG or gg.
  • The heterozygeous outcomes from the above picture are Gg.

Sexual reproduction has more diverse characteristics than asexual reproduction because sexual  reproduction has more than one parent which results in different genes than asexual reproduction that has only one parent.


  • Adaptation: The action of adapting or changing to fit a situation
  • Evolution: The process that living organisms have changed throughout history.
  • Species:A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.
  • Gene: A unit of heredity that is transfered from a parent to an offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of offspring.
  • Genetic: Relating to genes or heredity.
  • Sexual reproduction: The production of new living living organisms by combining genetic information.
  • Asexual reproduction: Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction which offspring come from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only.

Genetic variation

Genetic variation is important because it determines the organisms physical form and function. It helps organisms survive with the forever changing environment. Also genetic variation lessons the potential destructive effects of breeding among relatives.



5 types of ecosystems

  1. Tropical Rain forests
  2. Savannas
  3. Deserts
  4. Temperate Grasslands
  5. Decidous Forests
  6. Coniferous forest
  7. Tundra


decomposer: Organisms that break down dead or decaying orginisms.

consumer:An organism that obtains food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter due to not being able to make its own food.

ecosystem: A community of living oganisms in conjuction with the nonliving components of their environments.

producer: An organism that is part of the first level of a food chain.

food chain: A food chain is a sequence of links in a foodweb starting from a, producer, and ending at apex predator, decomposer.

biotic: A living orgainism in an ecosystem.

abiotic: A nonliving organism in an ecosystem.

adaptation: The action or process of adapting or being adapted.

Examples of biotic and abiotic factors

Biotic: Some examples od a biotic factors in a wetland, ecosystem are trees, butterflys, and turtlehead flowers.

Abiotic: Some examples of an abiotic factor in a wetland ecosystem is water, light, rocks, and minerals.

Wetland food chains

Producer->Primary Consumer->Secondary Consumer->Tertiary Consumer-> Quarternary Consumer

Energy in the ecosystem

The energy enters the ecosystem by sunlight into the plants (producers).

The arrows

The arrows in question 11 mean, the producer is eaten by the primary consumers, which is eaten by the secondary conusmers, which are eaten by the quarternary consumer.

A space in the chain

If an element in the food chain were to sie off, the species above it would die or adapt, and the species below it on the food chain, would thrive becasue they were not being consumed.

Website questions

  1. The wetlands have a filtering system that cleans out the water anfd saves us lots of money.
  2. Wetlands have natruel sponges that traps, and slowly releases run off water. Trees, roots, and mats spread the water throughout the floodplain.
  3. Wetland plants hold the soil in place and prevents it to erode away. They also absorb the energy of waves, and break up the flow of stream or river currents.
  4. Many animals use the wetlands for food, and as a place to live. Without the wetlands, lots of animals would die.
  5. We use natruel resources from the wetlands like fish, shellfish, berries, and different plants.


Comment Stream

2 years ago

Hey Mrs. Kettner, Im really sorry that this is so late. I didn't realize that I didn't publish it. @titanslaxmom