Ancient Egypt has been recognized as a thriving civilization with a culture that once influenced so many old advanced civilizations, including Greece and Rome. While Ancient Egypt thrived, present day Egypt has a number of mounting issues. Instability and uncertainty are factors that contribute to several areas of conflict in Egypt. Support, aid, and assistance from the international community is needed to help stabilize Egypt and resolve the issues found in the area's of government, human rights and the economy.
The Egyptian government continues to be unstable and have problems with developing positive relations and trust with the Egyptian people. After two and a half years of confusion and disturbance, the military removed the country’s first elected president, the Muslim Brotherhood–affiliated Mohamed Morsi, from power, on July 3, 2013. Since then, the relationship between the Muslim Brotherhood and the military has been strained and caused the Egyptian society to be divided. (Jim Lobe, Increased Instability Predicted for Egypt). Egypt faces the issue of a political vacuum with no proper democratic government institutions to fill the void. Moreover, the old state’s deep authoritarianism continues to plague Egyptian society and prevent efforts for real change. The military's attempt to suppress the civilians and order control continues to create more anger amongst the Egyptian society. As rebellion against the government continues, the peoples efforts to have a fair democratic government system in place continues to be challenged by government forces. As reported in 2014, "Egyptians have suffered through the most intense human rights abuses and terrorism in their recent history in the eight months since the military ousted then president Mohamed Morsi,"(Michele Dunne, Egypt's Unprecedented instability). Since Mubarak was removed from his position of power, there was and continues to be a struggle in transitioning for the new government, whether that was the military or the Muslim Brotherhood. The primary goal must be to create stability and security for the Egyptian people as well as forming a fair democratic system as opposed to the decades of autocratic rule that led the Egyptian people to protest in 2011. Problems continue to mount in Egypt, and the existing political forces have proven unable to deliver any real solutions.
As instability continues to be an issue in Egypt, human rights violations continue to be a major concern. Egypt has a consistent history of mistreating political prisoners, often in the name of fighting terrorism (Human Rights in Egypt). As seen In the months following the ouster of President Morsi, police used excessive lethal force, killed hundreds of protesters, and arrested many Brotherhood supporters. On March 5, 2014, 500 Muslims were condemned to death for the killing of one police officer. This event highlighted the corruption and injustice that is exercised by the government as well as the court system. The military's attempts to suppress the civilians and regain control, has created more anger amongst the people of Egypt . In the past, prosecutors failed to investigate security forces accused of killing hundreds of protesters, yet were quick to refer protesters to trial on violence-related charges. There have also been accusations of police arresting protesters outside the presidential palace and elsewhere, illegally holding hundreds, including children, in Central Security Forces camps where they subjected dozens to torture, including sexual abuse. The Egyptian court also proved to contribute to this issues by placing a ban on the activities of the 6 April Movement in 2014, which was considered to be a clear violation of citizens’ rights to free association, peaceful assembly, and free expression. With human rights violations continuing to exist and be a major issue in Egypt, the little efforts made to address this problem have proven to be insignificant and reveals that external help from the international community is needed in order to combat this issue. (Egypt: Lift Ban on Youth Opposition Group)
In order for stability to occur, economic growth and development is one of the essential elements that will help stabilize the country. Economic growth in Egypt has been held back by a severely limited amount of arable land (less than 5% of the total area) as well as a large and rapidly growing population. Furthermore, Egypt’s lack of progress in advancing economic freedom has left many of its citizens in poverty and economic stagnation.There have been many efforts made throughout Egyptian history up to the modern day by the government, to improve and help stabilize its economy. Since the 1970's, billions of dollars in economic aid have poured into Egypt from the United States, Arab neighbours, and European nations. However, the country's inefficient state-run industries, its bloated public sector, and its large military investments has resulted in inflation, unemployment, a severe trade deficit, and heavy public debt. From just before 2011 to 2014, facts showed that the GDP growth was down from nearly 6 percent to under 2 percent, and unemployment increased from 9 percent to over 13 percent. Additionally, foreign exchange reserves were down from $35 billion to just under $15 billion and the budget deficit had more than doubled from nearly 110 billion Egyptian pounds to over 230 billion. A quarter of that budget were subsidies to poor and middle class; and the poor and near-poor total approximately half of the population. Direct foreign investment had also declined sharply while gasoline and power shortages continued to be a concern for the population. Lastly, wealth distribution was badly skewed and the hidden "black" economy constituted as much as 40 percent of Egyptian economic activity (Ben Jr, Beyond the Coup) . With recent events of violent protests, instability, and security concerns, the tourist industry has taken a particular hard hit, resulting in a decrease of tourists contributing to the Egyptian economy (Egypt) . Egypt has continued to struggle in economic growth and development, and continues to be in a position where external aid from other nations and organizations are needed. In this period of time, Egypt continue's to struggle in achieving and maintaining a stable economy. (Economy of Egypt).
Since the 2011 uprising against the regime of former president Hosni Mubarak, there has been continued tensions between the Egyptian government and the people. Egypt continues to be a nation in turmoil, presented with many conflicts, problems, and a lack of resolutions. In order for Egypt to improve and combat the issues found in government, human rights, and the economy the international community's support and aid in resolving these issues are required.
Dunne, Michele. "Egypt's Unprecedented Instability by the Numbers." Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. N.p., 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 8 June 2014. <http://carnegieendowment.org/2014/03/24/egypt-s-unprecedented-instability-by-numbers/h5j3>.
"Egypt: Lift Ban on Youth Opposition Group | Human Rights Watch." Egypt: Lift Ban on Youth Opposition Group | Human Rights Watch. N.p., 30 Apr. 2014. Web. 8 June 2014. <http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/04/30/egypt-lift-ban-youth-opposition-group>.
Jr., Ben. "Beyond the Coup: Egypt's Real Problem Is Its Economy." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 10 July 2013. Web. 8 June 2014. <http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/07/beyond-the-coup-egypts-real-problem-is-its-economy/277676/>.