The Renaissance and Reformation

Nathan Lonneman

Johannes Gutenburg

  • Born sometime around 1400 in Mainz, Germany.
  • Moved to Strasbourg and started making metal hand mirrors sometime before 1434.
  • Losing money in his business, so he started developing a printing press with movable type.
  • Perfected the press, cast 290 metal blocks of letters, and developed a new printing ink.
  • Sued by Fust for money lent to Gutenberg, Fust took over the printing business.
  • Exiled by arguing with two archbishops.
  • Died in 1468, in Mainz, Germany.


  • Developed the printing press with movable type.
  • Invented an oil-based printing ink that made production easier.
  • Made books cheaper and more available to commoners.
  • Printed the 200 Gutenberg Bibles.
  • Received a pension from the Archbishop Adolf von Nassau for annual amounts of grain and wine along with tax exemptions in return for the use of the printing press.
  • The printing press aided in the Renaissance by opening the door to mass media publishing.

Ignatius of Loyola

  • Born in 1491 in Azpeitia, northern Spain.
  • Worked as a page for the Treasurer of Castile.
  • Trained as a Spanish knight.
  • Injured defending Pamplona from the French.
  • Read about Jesus and the saints and decided he wanted to live a life similar to theirs.
  • Lived as a hermit for ten months.
  • Traveled to the Holy Land attempting to convert the Moors.
  • Died in 1556.


  • Encouraged the Spanish to keep fighting at Pamplona, even though they lost.
  • Helped the sick and prayed to God as a hermit.
  • Studied at various universities learning Latin and Theology.
  • Became a Catholic priest.
  • Founded the Jesuits, an order of Catholic missionaries.
  • At the time of his death, there were about 1000 Jesuits.


  • Born around 1386 in Florence, Italy.
  • As an apprentice, learned to sculpt and carve bronze reliefs.
  • Sculpted St. Mark, St. John the Evangelist, and St. George, statues decorating the Orsanmichele.
  • Travels to Rome with Michelozzo.
  • Travels to Naples with Michelozzo to sculpt a tomb for Cardinal Brancacci.
  • Spends ten years in Padua, Italy, creating various bronze statues and reliefs.
  • Died in 1466, Florence, Italy.


  • Sculpted the statue David.
  • Relief-carved the bronze Feast of Herod for the Baptistry of Sienna.
  • Carved the tomb for Pope John XXIII with the help of Michelozzo.
  • Created the Gattamelata, a bronze equestrian statue.
  • Made a bronze Crucifixion for the high altar of Saint Antonio in Padua.


Image Bibliographies