The 14 Amendment
the 14 amendment
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
amendment 14 was ratified on July 9,1886.The amendment granted U.S citizenship to former slaves and changed the rule in article 1 section 2 that counted a single slave as 3/5 of a person for purposes of representation in congress.
The 14th amendment also added a couple of other things for example it limited the powers of state government.The state government cannot violate citizen's privileges.The state government shall not deprive any citizen life, liberty, or property without due process of law.and state government must guarantee all persons equal protection of the law.
The fourteenth amendment was intended to overturn the case of Dred scott vs Stanford. Dred Scott, born into slavery, argued that he should be granted freedom from the family that claimed ownership over him because he had lived in free states and thus had become a citizen of the United States before returning to Missouri, a state where slavery was sanctioned. Chief justice taney, denying scott's appeal,held that African Americans were not citizens, and therefore were “not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word citizens.” By specifically granting citizenship to all persons born or naturalized, the Fourteenth Amendment has not only guaranteed citizenship to former slaves but to most children born within the United States, even if the child’s parents are not and cannot become citizens.
an event that lead up to the 14th amendment was the civil war. After the proclamation the 14th amendment made sure that all slaves in the U.S were now citizens. but Indians under tribal law were not affected by this law. this means that the Indians were not citizens unless they married someone, treaties were made, or they were in the military. This changed in 1924 when the Indian citizenship act was passed.