Civil Rights Maps
Brown vs. Board of Education
The Brown vs. board of education was what ruled that "separate but equal" public schools for blacks and whites were unconstitutional. Linda Brown had to walk a mile to get to school, including crossing a railroad switch yard. She lived about seven blocks from an all-white school. This is the case that ruled public schools for blacks and whites. It was significant because it stopped all white schools.
Murder of The Three Civil Rights Workers
On June 21, 1964, three young civil rights workers- a 21-year-old black Mississippian man named James Chaney, and two white New Yorkers, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, were murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi. They had been working to register black voters in Mississippi during Freedom Summer and had gone to investigate the burning of a black church. They were arrested by the police on trumped up charges, served in prison for several hours, and then released after dark into the hands of the KKK, who beat and murdered them.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Montgomery Bus Boycott is when African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating. This took place from December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956. On December 1, 1955, four days before the boycott began, Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery bus. She was arrested and fined. This eventually gave African Americans rights to ride anywhere on the bus.
Murder of Medgar Evers
Medgar Evers was a civil rights activist who was in a high profile position in the NAACP. He became of a target for those who were against desegregation and racial equality. He and his family were subjected to numerous threats and violent actions over the years. On June 12, 1963, Evers was shot in the back in the driveway of his home in Jackson. He died less than a hour later at a nearby hospital. This was a huge because it showed how many people died because they did not oppose of racial equality.
A group of 13 African-American and white civil rights activists launched the Freedom Rides, a series of bus trips through the American South to protest segregation in interstate bus stations. The Freedom Riders were recruited by the Congress of Racial Equality, a U.S. civil rights group, departed from Washington and attempted to integrate bus facilities. African American Freedom Riders tried to use “whites-only” restrooms and lunch counters, and vice versa.
On 25 March 1965, Martin Luther King led thousands of nonviolent demonstrators to the steps of the capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, after a 5-day, 54-mile march from Selma, Alabama.
Integration of Mississippi
James Meredith attempted to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Chaos broke out on the Mississippi campus, with riots ending in two dead, hundreds wounded and others arrested. After the Kennedy administration called out some, 31,000 National Guardsmen and other federal forces to enforce order.
Integration of Central High School
Nine black students enrolled at an all white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957. Those nine students were harassed and followed by mops of white students. They had the national guard there to protect the nine students on their first day of school there.
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed by James Earl Ray at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tenn, 45 years ago, on April 4, 1968. His death shocked the country, there were riots, civil disputes, and a controversial war. It sparked nationwide protests, a two-month manhunt and grief for the slain civil rights leader who continues to stand for equal rights, peaceful protests and justice.
Birmingham Church Bombing
On September 15, a bomb exploded before Sunday morning services at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. This was a church that was a predominantly black congregation that served as a meeting place for civil rights leaders. Four young girls were killed and many other people injured, there was outrage over the incident and a violent clash between protesters and police that followed. This showed the dangers for all civil rights activists.
On February 1, 1960, four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth’s in Greensboro, North Carolina and politely asked for service. Their request was denied. When asked to leave, they remained in their seats. Their resistance and peaceful sit down demand made a movement to challenge racial inequality throughout the South.
March to Washington
On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 Americans gathered in Washington, D.C., for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Organized by a number of civil rights and religious groups, the event was designed to put light on the political and social challenges African Americans continued to face across the country. The march was a key moment in the growing struggle for civil rights in the United States.