Ecosystem Portfolio: Ocean

Biotic Factors:

Fish, coral, seaweed, dolphins, whales, and plankton are examples of biotic factors.

Abiotic Factors:

Water, amount of sun, temperature, air, and the depth of the water are examples of abiotic factors in this ecosystem.

Carrying Capacity:

Limit of how many individual organisms an ecosystem can support. Animals need food, water, shelter, and space to survive. The population in this ecosystem will change over time depending on how many resources are available. For example the population of dolphins will decrease depending on the food source. If more fishing goes on, there will be less resources available to the dolphins so there will be less dolphins alive. Or if there isn't enough food for the fish, there wouldn't be enough food for the dolphins. If there is less fishing & there is enough food for those fish to survive, then there will be more dolphins. It will all change over time. It won't stay the same all the time. How many dolphins are alive at one time depends on the food source mainly.

Limiting Factors:

Factors that influence the carrying capacity. Limiting factors can be disease, fishing, and predators. Predators limit how many animals are alive. Sharks are predators, so they limit how many prey animals will live. Prey to a shark can be fish, dolphins, seals, and penguins depending on where they live in the world.  (Predator-prey relationship: Shark and seal.)

Energy Roles:

Producers can be algae,coral,or anything else that gets its energy from the sun. Consumers can be fish,whales,dolphins,sharks,or anything that gets its energy from consuming other plants or animals. Decomoposers  are bacteria, fungi, or anything else that breaks down dead plants or animals. Consumers are either herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, or scavengers. Sharks, dolphins, certain whales, and certain fish are carnivores. Green Sea Turtles, Manatees, and Parrot Fish are examples of herbivores. Sea birds, crustaceans, and mollusks are examples of scavengers in an ocean environment. Salt water crabs, sea otters, sharks, and whales are examples of omnivores in the ocean ecosystem. Producers get their energy from the sun, carnivores get their energy from eating animals, omnivores get their energy from eating animals and plants, and scavengers eat organisms that have been killed by something else. Decomposers get their energy from breaking down dead organisms which include both plants and animals. Producers are needed to have an ecosystem because if there were no producers, then consumers wouldn't get energy, and decomposers and scavengers wouldn't be able to get energy either. The whole ecosystem would not exist if there was no producer.

Food Webs and Food Chains:

Food chains are different from food webs. A food web shows which animal gets energy from which other animal. Food chains show energy that starts from the sun and goes to producers.  If I removed one population from the food web, the rest would be affected. Some negatively, but some positively. If I took away the whales, there would be  a lot more fish because one of their predators would be gone. That would be positive for the fish, but negative for other animals that rely on eating whales. If I took away the sea otters, there would be too many crabs roaming around the ocean. Taking away any population from a food chain or web would greatly affected the environment around them.

Trophic Levels & Energy Pyramids

Energy pyramids are shaped that way because it shows the energy from one animal to another. On the bottom you have an autotroph, which could be phytoplankton. The next level to an energy pyramid, is the primary consumer, which could be something like a sea snail. Then you could have a fish, which would be the secondary consumer.  After that would be the tertiary consumer, which could be a kind of shark. A producer is on the bottom because they give energy to a herbivore, which gives energy to a carnivore, which gives energy to a secondary carnivore, which gives energy to the apex predator, or top carnivore.

Photosynthesis:

The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of a plant cell. Sunlight, carbon dioxide, water,

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