Earth's Tectonic Plates
When hot rock rises from the earth's core, the tectonic plates spread apart. Soon, the plates cool down and sinks back down into the ground. When this happens, the crust melts and gets reused. This is the reason why tectonic plates are older than the oceanic crust. While the tectonic plates move, the earths crust slowly move which causes the continents to move each year by a few centimeters. Around 4 billion years ago, all the earths continents were together (Pangaea) and as the tectonic plates and earths crust began to move, it also moved the continents (continental drift). The continents moved appart and also converged with eachother. When some of the continents collided with another continent, volcanoes and mountains formed.
Volcanoes erupt when the plates move back down into the ground. The plates carry dead plankton and then the plates gets heated up which results in carbon dioxide gas to release. The carbon dioxide is finally realeased when a volcano eruption accures.
Earthquakes also acure when the oceanic plates are in motion. When the plates are in motion, it causes an aftershock. Most undreground aftershokes go unoticed but some aftershocks become fatial and dangerous. When earthquakes accure, the ground begins to break and seperate into huge cracks.
Animals and the weather has changed when the continents separated throughout history. As the continents moved, the weather became either warmer or colder because when the earth rotates around the sun, most of the suns heat goes to the middle part of earth. Some continents moved to the south or north part of earth so the weather would start to get colder. Some continents moved to the center part of earth so the weather became warmer. With the weather change, some animals were forced to adapt to their enviorment that got cooler or warmer.