Development of the State Concept
It's the concept of divided the world into smaller, independent states, and it is a recent idea. Before the 1800's the Earth's surface was divided into city-states, empires, and tribes.
The first states to evolve were city-states. A city state is a town and it's country side that is around it. Periodically a city or tribe would gain military power, conquer other tribes and cities, and become an empire. Egypt's empire was one of the biggest and most important empires. It lasted from 3000 B.C to 4000 B.C.
Early European States
Europe had the most unity during the Roman Empire. the Roman Empire controlled most of Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. Their land stretched from Spain to Iran, and from England to Egypt. When the Roman Empire fell, the European part was split between many nobles and dukes who fought over land. After awhile in 1100 a couple powerful kings emerged.