~ Ionic bonds are chemical bonds that result from the electrical attraction between anions (negative ions) and cations (positive ions), which are combined so that there is an equivalent number of positive and negative charges.
~ Ionic compounds tend to be powdery/granular. They usually have a high melting point and are typically soluble in water. They aren't conductive as solids, but they are conductive in their liquid state or when they're dissolved in water.
~ NaCl, or table salt, is an example of an ionic compound created by ionic bonds.
~ A covalent bond is a chemical bond formed from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms.
~ Substances that have covalent bonds tend to be powdery or granular. Some are soluble in water; others are insoluble. Substances with covalent bonds have a low melting point and aren't conductive.
~ Sugar (sucrose), or C12H22O11, is an example of a substance that has covalent bonds.
~ Metallic bonds are chemical bonds formed as a result of the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons.
~ Substances with metallic bonds tend to have a metallic luster due to their ability to absorb a wide range of light frequencies. They aren't soluble in water, and they have a high melting point. They are extremely conductive (they have high thermal and high electrical conductivity) when liquid and when solid. They are malleable and ductile.
~ Metals are held together by metallic bonds, and copper is a metal. This penny, which is made of copper, is an example of something that has metallic bonds.