CH. 15: I.T. Systems in Organizations

System Development Life Cycle


  1. Analysis Stage
  2. Design Stage
  3. Implication Stage
  4. Testing Stage
  5. Installation Stage
  6. Maintenance Stage

Types of Development Software

  • Off-the-shelf Software
  • Custom/ Bespoke Software

These types of software use text editors to enter the source codes and are often packaged together in an Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

Other Systems used for by Organizations

  • Legacy Systems
  • Emulator
  • Virtual Machines (VM)

Analysis Stage


  • Investigating the current system
  • Determining organization requirements for the new system
  • Investigating possible solutions
  • Analyzing all key stakeholders in the situation

This stage should determine the project goals and the scope.

This stage is CRITICAL!!

Design Stage

This stages needs to cover the:

  • Inputs:
  • Processes: often designed with Data Flow Charts and ERDs
  • Data Structure
  • Outputs

Implication Stage

  • Alpha testing is performed
  • Prototypes are created
  • Documentation is done to explain the systems development
  • Quality Control Processes are done

Installation Stage

  • User training must be carried out before the new system can be put into the real world
  • Changeovers: switching out retired systems with new ones

Testing Stage

Testing helps to check the condition of the system created

  • Beta testing
  • Bug tracking system
  • User acceptance testing: important in the handover process

Maintenance Stage

  • Maintenance: monitoring software overtime
  • Regression Testing takes place
  • incident tracking: helps when creating solutions to the issues
  • Phase out: when a new product is in the analysis stage

Development Approach

  • Waterfall Model
  • Agile development model

Project Management Methodologies

  • PMBoK

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