Weathering and erosion can break down rock and make sediment which can eventually make sedimentary rock. Sediment can be transported through water wind animals and many other things. It can be deported and collect in certain areas and make sedimentary rocks.  Then sedimentation can take place on a river banks or barriers.   

This is showing that high pressure and high heat can make layers in the rocks.  This is a metamorphic rock because it has layers and it  different colors which means it went through many phases of heat and pressure. Melting can occur when the  heat is too great for the rock and the rock is melted down.  Magma can come from mantle which is down below the earths surface.  

This is an intrusive igneous rock because it has gas bubbles  which means it has cooled above the surface a extrusive igneous rock would be glassy looking because it has cooled under the earths surface