Atom

Atom and its structure

An atom is the basic unit of a matter There are many different types of atoms, each with its own name,mass and size. These different types of atoms are called chemical elements. Inside an atom An atom consists of four main parts -Nucleus, proton, electron and neutron

Nucleus

The nucleus is the center of an atom. It is made up of protons and neutrons and is surrounded by the electron cloud. The size (diameter) of the nucleus is between 1.6 fm (10āˆ’15 m) (for a proton in light hydrogen) to about 15 fm (for the heaviest atoms, such as uranium). These sizes are much smaller than the size of the atom itself by a factor of about 23,000 (uranium) to about 145,000 (hydrogen). The nucleus has most of the mass of an atom, though it is only a very small part of it. Almost all of the mass in an atom is made up from the protons and neutrons in the nucleus with a very small contribution from the orbiting electrons

Neutron

Neutrons, with protons and electrons, make up an atom. Neutrons and protons are found in the nucleus of an atom. Unlike protons, which have a positive charge, or electrons, which have a negative charge, neutrons have no charge. Neutrons bind with protons with the residual strong force

Neutrons were predicted by Ernest Rutherford and discovered by James Chadwick in 1932.Particles emerged which had no charge, and he called these 'neutrons'.

Proton

A proton is part of an atom.They are found in the nucleus of an atom along with neutrons. They are positive in nature. The periodic table groups atoms according to how many protons they have. A single atom of hydrogen (the lightest kind of atom) is made up of an electron moving around a proton. Most of the mass of this atom is in the proton, which is almost 2000 times heavier than the electron. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of every other kind of atom. In any one element, the number of protons is always the same. An atom's atomic number is equal to the number of protons in that atom.

Electron

An electron is the smallest piece of matter and energy. Its symbol is eāˆ’. The electron is a subatomic particle. It is believed to be an elementary particle because it cannot be broken down into anything smaller. It is negatively charged,and may move almost at the speed of light. Electrons take part in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions. The electricity that powers radios, motors, and many other things consists of many electrons moving through wires or other conductors.

Video about Atoms

                                                          


Comment Stream