Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony. The Roman politician and general Mark Antony 83–30 B.C. was an ally of Julius Caesar and the main rival of his successor Octavian (later Augustus). With those two men he was integral to Rome’s transition from republic to empire. His romantic relationship with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra was his downfall.his reckless behavior squandered much of that opportunity. Deep in gambling debt and pursued by creditors, Antony fled to Greece in 58 B.C. and took part in military campaigns in Judea, where he performed well.Between 52 and 50 B.C., Mark Antony was assigned as a staff officer to Julius Caesar in Gaul and was instrumental in helping bring the province under Rome's control. Upon returning from Gaul, Antony was appointed tribune, representing the interests of the people.Caesar's actions led many to believe he was positioning himself to become dictator. A plot to assassinate him emerged, and on March 15, 44 B.C., he was killed in the Roman Senate. Antony was next in line to Caesar but was challenged by Octavian, Caesar's nephew and adopted son.