Continuity and Change in the United States
1998-2015

By Jaznae' Smith

Document A:

Source: Nature Publishing Group, 23 July 1998.

"Full-term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei''/Serial/Culture/1998

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v394/n6691/full/394369a0.html

Full-term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei

Until recently, fertilization was the only way to produce viable mammalian offspring, a process implicitly involving male and female gametes. However, techniques involving fusion of embryonic or fetal somatic cells with enucleated oocytes have become steadily more successful in generating cloned young. Dolly the sheep was produced by electrofusion of sheep mammary-derived cells with enucleated sheep oocytes. Here we investigate the factors governing embryonic development by introducing nuclei from somatic cells (Sertoli, neuronal and cumulus cells) taken from adult mice into enucleated mouse oocytes. We found that some enucleated oocytes receiving Sertoli or neuronal nuclei developed in vitro and implanted following transfer, but none developed beyond 8.5 days post coitum; however, a high percentage of enucleated oocytes receiving cumulus nuclei developed in vitro. Once transferred, many of these embryos implanted and, although most were subsequently resorbed, a significant proportion (2 to 2.8%) developed to term. These experiments show that for mammals, nuclei from terminally differentiated, adult somatic cells of known phenotype introduced into enucleated oocytes are capable of supporting full development.

Historical Context: Until then, cloning was only possible in science fiction movies. But in 1998, scientists found a way. In order to clone they took nuclei form somatic cells (so the "main part" of any cell that isn't an egg or sperm, also referred to as sertoli) and injected them into immature egg cells (oocytes) from the female. When they did this, the cells started to form unusual as they normally would. This showed that this new process was perfectly capable of creating life. After multiple attempts, the first species was cloned.

Purpose: To inform people on the new discovering in technology and the possible advancements.

Culture: A new debate was brought into question on whether cloning is ethical of not. Many believe that copying another life form code-for-code is not exactly moral, where others believe it is very useful, especially for science purposes. Whether or not it is ethical would determine on whether it would be legal to do so. However, the idea of using cloning to copy certain cells to help defend against diseases makes cloning seem a lot less "harmful" to society.

Document B:

Source: Fox News. September 11th, 2001.

Flashback 9/11: As It Happened/Video/America In The World/2001

http://video.foxnews.com/v/1151859712001/flashback-911-as-it-happened/?#sp=show-clips

Flashback 9/11: As It Happened

Historical Context: A terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11th, 001 caused the country to go into panic. First, one plane crashed into the North tower and was believed to be a possible accident. Shortly after, the South tower was hit by a plane. This lead the country to know that it was indeed a terrorist attack. Through out the day other planes were found. One plane hit the pentagon, another found in a remote area which appeared to have been nosedived. The attack was lead by an organization known as Al-Qaeda, which was a Muslim terrorist group.

Audience: American citizens across the country.

America In The World: After 9/11, America stepped up its security. Now in order to fly out of the country, you would have spend at least an hour getting into the waiting area before your flight. There were many new restrictions, like no more than two ounces of liquid per bottle. Or no metal that goes undetected. This also lead Many Americans to believe that Muslims as a whole were dangerous because of the few who were in on this attack. All Muslims were now known as terrorists and many still believe they are, to this day.

Document C:

Source: IGN, September 14th, 2005

TGS 2005: Xbox 360 Launch Date/News Article/Technology/2005

http://www.ign.com/articles/2005/09/15/tgs-2005-xbox-360-launch-date

TGS 2005: Xbox 360 Launch Date

Microsoft stormed into Tokyo, Japan this week rearing to kick off the Japanese cornerstone of the Xbox 360 launch. The company that Gates built revealed the last significant piece of launch news by announcing Xbox 360 will hit retail store shelves Tuesday, November 22 in North America, Friday, December 2 in Europe, and Saturday, December 10 in Japan.

While X360 launches globally this holiday in North America, Europe, and Japan, the launch unfortunately doesn't include all world territories. In calendar year 2006, X360 will launch in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, Mexico and Colombia. Microsoft would not clarify what quarter, month, or date "calendar year '06" was.

Historical Context: Up until now, connecting to the internet over a gaming console was never heard of. With this invention in 2005, not only could you connect to the internet, but you could have voice communications with people from all over the world. In order to play with someone else before, you would need to be in the same room and have another controller with you.

Audience: Gamers.

Technology: For the first time people will be able to talk to people from all over the world through a gaming console. The Xbox 360 introduced the new idea of having a voice-on-voice conversation with up to seven different people from any place in the world where internet connection is available. This opened a whole new world to gaming as well as voice communications.

Document D:

Source: Asian Glow, July 14, 2010

BP Oil Spill Song/Music/America In The World/2010

https://www.youtube.com/watch?

BP Oil Spill Song

Historical Context: Over 130 million gallons of oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It spread over 16,000 miles. The spill was devastating due to the fact that it damaged many living organisms. Most got covered in oil, making it harder to move and breath, also infecting them. For the organisms deep under water, the oil blocked out the sun due to oils density and inability to mix with water. It took about three years to fully clean up.

Purpose: To show how bad the oil spill actually was.

America In The World: America had to take immediate action in order to prevent the oil from spreading into other areas of the ocean. Rescue groups were made to save any people and animals that the oil affected or could have affected.

Document E:

Source: Godswill Christian Rapper, March 22nd, 2012

Official Trayvon Martian Song/Music/Cultural/2012

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8JT11oAjzjg

Official Trayvon Martian Song

Historical Context: A young teen named Trayvon Martian was walking home one day and speaking to his girlfriend on the phone. On his way home, he was shot and killed by a neighborhood watchman, named George Zimmerman, when not doing anything suspicious. It was recorded as a hate crime because Trayvon was innocent and of African decent. This happened in Florida on February 26th, 2012.

Point of View: Trayvon did not deserve to be killed and he his death won't be in vain.

Cultural: Many citizens across the country were arguing over Trayvon's death. It was many a war between races then anything else. There were non-blacks who joined with the blacks, but the debate was mainly over it being a hate crime or not. Protests broke out and many people were wearing hoodies and carrying Arizona Ice Teas and Skittles because that's how Trayvon was when he was killed. His death opened up the doors to blacks taking more action for their rights, as well as people fighting to keep them away.

Document F:

Source: President Obama, April 15, 2013

Statement by the President/Speech/Politics And Power/2013

https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/04/15/statement-president

Statement by the President

Boston police, firefighters, and first responders as well as the National Guard responded heroically, and continue to do so as we speak. It’s a reminder that so many Americans serve and sacrifice on our behalf every single day, without regard to their own safety, in dangerous and difficult circumstances. And we salute all those who assisted in responding so quickly and professionally to this tragedy.

We still do not know who did this or why. And people shouldn’t jump to conclusions before we have all the facts. But make no mistake -- we will get to the bottom of this. And we will find out who did this; we'll find out why they did this. Any responsible individuals, any responsible groups will feel the full weight of justice.

Historical Context: A known to be terrorist attack happened during the yearly Boston marathon in 2013. During the run, two bombs went off near the finish line, they were about twelve seconds apart. Three people were killed and two-hundred and sixty-four were injured.

Audience: People of America, mainly those in or surrounding Boston.

Politics And Power: Due to the event's large scare, many people were interested on the how the government was going to react. On April 15, 2013, the trial was held and Tsarnaev (who was in charge of the bombing) was convicted. To this current day, people who were involved are still getting sent to prison.

Document G:

Source: Obama, October 17, 2013

Obama Scolds Congress, Outlines Steps Forward/Speech/Politics And Power/2013

http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/transcript-president-obamas-oct-17-remarks-on-shutdown-deal/2013/10/17/3eff02b6-3738-11e3-8a0e-4e2cf80831fc_story.html

Obama Scolds Congress, Outlines Steps Forward

That's not a surprise that the American people are completely fed up with Washington. At a moment when our economic recovery demands more jobs, more momentum, we've got yet another self-inflicted crisis that set our economy back. And for what? There was no economic rationale for all of this. Over the past four years, our economy has been growing, our businesses have been creating jobs, and our deficits have been in half. We hear some members who pushed for the shutdown say they were doing it to save the American economy. But nothing has done more to undermine our economy these past three years than the kind of tactics that create these manufactured crises.

And you don't have to take my word for it. The agency that put America's credit rating on watch the other day explicitly cited all of this, saying that our economy remains more dynamic and resilient than other advanced economies and that the only thing putting us at risk is -- and I'm quoting here -- "repeated brinksmanship." That's what the credit rating agency said

Historical Context: When Obamacare was first introduced, the Republicans and Democrats did not agree. This feud blow out of proportion and the government shut down. About 800,000 government workers furloughed. In the end, the two parties created a deal which they would halt the shutdown.

Purpose: To explain why government run offices/buildings shut down and how it is going to be fixed.

Politics And Power: This was a huge debate between the two political parties. Obamacare was such a big deal that thousands of workers took off to make a point. It really affected our country's economy, as well as the well-being/happiness of the citizens. However, after a short time, the government was back to functioning to how it usually does.

Document H:

Source: Johnathon Corum, 2015

NASA's New Horizon Probe Sees Pluto in Color/Visual/Technology/2015

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/01/13/science/space/photos-of-pluto-from-nasa-new-horizons.html?_r=0

NASA’s New Horizons Probe Sees Pluto in Color

Historical Context: There is a mission called "New Horizons", a probe was sent into space to investigate Pluto. At the moment, this is the closest we have ever been to the distant dwarf planet and for the first time ever, a colored photo of Pluto was taken (2015). We already know how Pluto generally looks (in black and white), but now we can match the color.

Purpose: To inform people of the new solar discovery.

Technology: New advances in technology allowed NASA to create a probe that can take colored images from a longer distance than before. This probe is also capable of reaching further distances. This is something that was possible during the end of the last millennium.

Thesis

Even though a lot has changed in our country over time, from new advances in technology and our changes in culture, we still stayed the same in other areas like politics and how much we affect the world. We might be able to reach further out into the world and space, but we still have the same issues between two political parties. We still stand up for what we believe in (with the court cases and government shut downs) even though our opinions are changing. These changes and continuations help our people have a voice while still exploring everything around us.

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