In this political cartoon different countries are trying to get their hands on Africa or at least a piece. This cartoon is called "The Scramble for Africa". Different countries wanted to have or own Africa, so this picture shows countries fighting over Africa.
Africa was big, had lots of land, and was wealthy. Everyone wanted Africa, so they fought for it till every country that fought for it got their own piece, and took it over. Today, Africa is under control by about every country now.