By: Devin Hendrick, Sanket Shah, Alex Florenzo, Sam Sheinker

Lack of Equality: a condition where no equality is present

Reconstruction

Black Codes: Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves (passed by southern states after civil war). Lack of equality because newly freed black slaves were denied legal

Jim Crow Laws: Laws enacted by southern states and Local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities. Lack of equality because blacks weren’t allowed to do certain things that whites did such as use the same bathroom or water fountain. The blacks weren’t treated as equal

Segregation: The separation of people on the basis of race

Poll Tax: An annual tax that formerly had to be paid in some Southern states by anyone wishing to vote.

There is a lack of equality in all of these events. In all of these events, African Americans were treated unfairly. Jim Crow Laws, Segregation, and black codes were similar because they restricted African Americans from doing certain things such as drinking out of the same water fountains as whites or using the same bathrooms. Poll tax was unfair because most African Americans didn't have the money to pay the tax.

Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny: A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.

Homestead Act: Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $10.

Trail of Tears: Part of Andrew Jackson’s Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present- day Oklahoma

Indian Removal Act: Law that permitted negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indian lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma

In all of these events, there is a lack of equality for the Indians. They were treated unfairly and forced off their own land. The Trail of Tears and Indian Removal act were unfair because the Indians weren't treated equally compared to the whites. The Homestead Act was unfair because some people didn't have enough money to afford that so they couldn't have any land and therefore they weren't equal to everyone else.

Industrialization

Monopoly: company that completely dominates a particular industry

Sweatshop: Small factory where workers work long hours under poor conditions for low wages

Tenement: a run-down apartment

A monopoly presents a lack of equality because that one business is much better than all of the other ones around it so it makes more money and is much more successful than all of the other businesses. In a sweatshop, the work conditions are horrible and people work long hours for little money. That is unfair and unequal. Workers should be presented the same working conditions as their bosses. People who live in tenements are also unequal because their apartment is so worn down and awful compared to other houses that people live in.

Labor's Response to Industrialism

Child Labor: Children often worked long hours in dangerous factory conditions for very little money. They could be paid lower wages, were more tractable and easily managed than adults, and were very difficult for unions to organize.

Working Class: The average adult worker worked quite often: five to seven days of the week, for more than half the day per shift. Children as young as fifteen worked for minimal wages. Some of the children became deformed or crippled due to their work, which was often. Most workers worked for relatively low wages due to their incapability to produce goods. The women and children were not paid as much as the men were.

Children were forced to work in factories and adults were forced to work long hours and do hard work and that isn't fair. It was usually poor people and children who had to work in these unequal conditions compared to other jobs.

Through Ellis Island and Angel Island: The Immigrant Experience

Chinese Exclusion Act: a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882. It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.

Steerage: The deck on the boat that was crowded with the poor immigrants

Deportation: occurs when the federal government orders that a non-citizen be removed from the United States. This can happen for different reasons, but typically occurs after the immigrant violates immigration laws or the more serious criminal laws.

The Chinese Exclusion Act made the Chinese unequal to all other citizens. Deportation occurred to only unequal's of the society such as Chinese. Unequal poor people were the only people who usually stayed on the steerage of the boat.

Progressive Era

Grandfather Clauses:another way to deny African American men the right to vote. Such clauses limited voting to those men whose fathers or grandfather’s had the right to vote in 1867

Literacy Test: laws required potential voters to prove that they could read and write

Literacy Tests and Grandfather Clauses were unfair to people such as Chinese immigrants and African Americans. They were treated as unequal's because they couldn't do things such as pass a literacy test or vote.

American Imperialism

Reconcentration camps: Cuban civilians put into these institutions to prevent them from aiding the insurrectos. Overcrowded, unsanitary, prison camps that provided little food or shelter causing thousands of deaths

Protectorate: a nation protected and controlled by a stronger nation

Yellow Journalism: Journalism that exploits news to attract readers

Spheres of Influence: Areas in which a single nation controlled trading rights

Cuban civilians put inside the reconcentration camps were unequal and treated horrible. They were deprived of food, water, bathing, ect. A protectorate makes the weaker nation unequal to the stronger one. The stronger nation controls everything in the littler, weaker nation. Yellow journalism exploits news which is silly and makes that news paper superior to all others because it attracts more readers. Finally, Spheres of Influence are more powerful than all other areas because it controls that are and makes everyone in it unequal.

World War 1

Espionage Act: law passed that made it illegal to spy

Although the Espionage Act sounds good, it wasn't. People such as immigrants were accused of spying and were punished which wasn't war. Most immigrants were looked upon as unequal. Also, women had less equality than men in the battlefield. They could not fight in the front lines alongside the men. To see women in the war meant that you were injured and you may die. African American soldiers had less equality in the battlefield. They only had two separate divisions. During WWI African Americans migrated to the north. However, they were still segregated in cities and hated by whites.

1920's

Nativism: anti-immigration term distinguishing native born from immigrants

"Lost generation": writers who rejected Victorian values after WWI and searched for new truths

KKK: group who violently opposed to immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and African Americans

The KKK treated all immigrants as unequal and did things to them such as killing them. Nativism also caused Immigrants to again be unequal to everybody else in the society. Since there were so many new things in the 1920's there wasn't much inequality present.

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