The innocence of children can see the flaws that adults have learned to ignore.
This criticism points out that Lee is not giving a proper history or pride of African Americans. They are instead shown as helpless victims.
Lubet explores the possibility of Atticus not being as perfect as we make him out to be, or, more specifically, as the novel depicts him to be.
Since Scout is a child she can see the discrepancies in her world, unlike the adults. It points out the flaws in society, which is in line with Southern Gothic writing.
Direct Characterization: Scout talking about Jem and Atticus during the jail scene- "Mutual Defiance made them alike" (Lee, 203) This scene shows that Atticus also has a stubborn streak, even though he always seems so collected and patient all the time.
Indirect Characterization: Atticus-" I haven't shot a gun in thirty years...Atticus's hand yanked a ball-tipped lever as he brought the gun to his shoulder.The rifle cracked." (Lee 127) When Atticus shoots the rabid dog, he shows courage and responsibility.
Round Character-Atticus is a round character because he is fully developed, and Harper Lee reveal much about him through direct and indirect characterization.
Static Character-Atticus is a static character, because his views on Maycomb and people do not change at all from the start to the end of the novel, and he remains courageous.
Literary: Scout-"Jem armed with Ivanhoe and full of superior knowledge" (Lee,141) Atticus-"I wanted you to see what real courage is...she was the bravest person I ever knew." (Lee, 149)
Historical: "Over here we don't believe in persecuting anybody. Persecution comes from people who are prejudiced. (Lee, 329) "Miss Gates was - she was goin' down the steps in front of us..I heard her say its time somebody taught them a lesson...how can you hate Hitler so bad and then turn around and be ugly at folks right at home." (Lee, 330)
Biblical: "Id hoped to get through life without a case of this kind" (Lee, 117) " Let this cup pass from you, eh?" (Lee, 117)
Narration by child is when Scout doesn't understand why she cant smash a a bug. Se says to Jem "Why couldn't I mash him?...I ain't gonna sit around and not scratch a redbug." (Lee, 320)
Scout is too young to understand empathy with insects.
Scout says that “when enough years had gone by to enable us to look back” on the incidents leading up to Jem’s injury, she preferred to take a “broad view of the thing. (Lee, 1)
Scout slips back to adult frame to start explaining her amazing ordeal.
Atticus-"Remember is a sin to kill a mockingbird" (Lee, 119) Miss Maudie- “they don’t do a thing but sing their hearts out for us.” (Lee,119)
The mockingbird represents innocence and the beauty of it. Killing a mockingbird symbolizes the destruction of innocence, shown with the case of Boo Radley and Tom Robinson.
Lula- “I wants to know why you bringin’ white chillun to nigger church.” (Lee, 158 ) This is clearly meant contemptuously, as she approaches Cal with ill will in mind for Jem and Scout. This is ironic, because during these times, in this place, white people were generally racist towards black people, not the other way around. Adults carry on with their prejudice, but children question it.
conveys ‘firm disapproval” of Scout upon discovering her lack of family pride, and then proceeds to educate her.
Scout “may not” attend the first purchase church.
-gets stuff done
-wants kids to be judgmental
-has a heart of stone
- Wants people to know she cares
Doesn’t “want anybody sayin’ I don’t look after my children." (Lee, 134)
After Scout's attendance to the First Purchase Church, she comments on Calprina's change in speech. Calpurnia explains that it would be "out of place" (Lee, 143" to talk like that at home.
Calpurnia comments that "it aggravates" (Lee, 143) people to change dialects depending on company.
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