Cells by Ethan Hagmann


A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic. (google.com)

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant cells have a cell wall while an animal cell does not. Most often, plant cells are a fixed shape while animal cells are an irregular shape. Both animal and plant cells are eukaryotic cells, so that they will have several similarities. Some of the similarities are that they both have a nucleus, cell membrane, cell organelles, and mitochondrias. Animal cells will have multiple small vacuoles while the plant cells will have one large vacuole. They will both have a cytoplasm and the rest of the anatomy of plant and animal cells are very similar.

Animal and Plant Cells

Cell Part Functions

The nucleus controls the cells activitiess and contains the hereditary information of the cell. Animal and Plant cells both have the cell membrane which will  support, protect, control movement of material in an out of the cell, and maintains homeostasis. Plant cells will have a cell wall which supports the cell and gives the cell its structure. Both plant and animal cells will have vacuoles which stores food and the waste of the cell. Animal cells will have one large vacuole while plants have many vacuoles that stores sugars in plants.

Cell Parts functions
Animal and Plant Cells

Nerve Cells

There are many nerve cells inside of the body's nervous system and they are called neurons. Nerve cells are used to transmit messages through the different parts of the body. All neruons will have a cell body and one or more fibres.

Nerve Cell/Neuron

Epithelial Cells

Epithelial cells will line the cavities and surfaces of structures in the body. Functions of epithelial cells will include; secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport, and detection of sensation. Most glands are made up of epithelial cells.

Epithelial C

Blood Cells

The main functions of blood cells include transporting oxygen, carbon dioxide, food molecules, ions, wastes, and hormones throughout the body. It is also a defense for the body against foreign materials and infections. Blood cells will also regulate temperature of the body and form clots to prevent excessive blood clots.

Blood cells

Organ Tissue

Certain organs will have different tissue that effects the function of that organ. The heart contains muscle tissue that contracts to pump blood and is very fibrous to maintain the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat. Muscle cells in the eye will open and close the pupil, clear cells in the eye will make up the lens and cornea, cells in the eye produce fluid, cells in the eye that will sense light, and nerve cells that conduct impulses from the eye to the brain. Some cells in the gallbladder will create a lining that will resist the effects of bile, other cells are muscular that contract to dispose of bile, and there are cells in the fibrous wall that holds the gallbladder together. These are some of the few relationships between organs and the tissue making up the organ.

Digestive System

The digestive system is composed of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, large intestine, and the rectum. Some of the main functions of the digestive system is to break down food into small molecules and they will become absorbed into the body by the process of absorption.

Digestive System

Circulatory System

The circulatory system will consist of four major components; the heart, arteries, veins, and blood. Functions of the circulatory system include; delivery of nutrient molecules, oxygen, and hormones and the removal of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other metabolic wastes. Capillaries are the point in this system where the exchange of these materials occur in surrounding tissue.

Circulatory System

Respiratory System

The respiratory system is made up of the nose, nasal cavities, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and the lungs. Primary functions of the respiratory system are; supplying the blood with oxygen so that blood will deliver oxygen throughout the body, and taking in oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide by breathing.

Respiratory System

System Interactions

The three systems mentioned above interact by the digestive system absorbing nutrients into the circulatory system that will deliver the nutrients throughout the body. The Respiratory system will interact with the circulatory system by breathing in oxygen that will move into the bloodstream and will move throughout the body, Carbon dioxide will then return to the respiratory system through the circulatory system and will be exhaled through the mouth.



A paramecium is a single celled organism while most other organisms have multiple amounts of cells. Most organisms will absorb nutrient through their digestive system while a paramecium will absorb nutrients through its cilia. Both paramecia and other organisms will store their food in vacuoles. These are some of the few similarities and differences between paramecia and other organisms.