- Weathering: Weathering is defined as the chemical as well as mechanical processes that change the surface rock of the earth.
- Chemical Weathering: Changing a rock into a new substance by exposing it to another substance such as water.
- Mechanical Weathering: Breaking down rocks into smaller versions of themselves without changing their chemical composition.
- Loess: Silt and clay that is deposited by wind and can be very fertile.
- Erosion: When weathered material is moved, usually downhill, by chemical or mechanical weathering.
- Sediment: Fine particles of weathered materials. Ex. Mud, sand, silt.
- Living shorelines- These are one of mans attempts to stop the effects of erosion. Plants with large root systems are planted along the shore and their roots help slow erosion on banks.
- Parent Material: The chemical composition of a rock before it is broken down into fertile soil.
- Glacier: A long lasting ice field that has the force to carve out mountains or flatten a landscape.
- Humus: The organic material in the soil.
- Moraine: Rocks that a glacier leaves behind are ridges called moraines.
- Glaciation: The changing landby slowly moving glaciers.