Theme 3: Feedback

After taking courses such as Authentic Assessment in the M.Ed program at Uoit, I now believe that when assessing or evaluating the learning of a student, giving a letter grade or number value is not enough. Kohn (2012) mentions that excessive emphasis on assessment might make learners very self- conscious. Instead, it is much better to give them descriptive and personalized feedback to help them improve (Kohn, 2008). In addition, it is better to have the learners show their learning through other means such as a portfolio, debate, role play or creation of a product where they are applying their knowledge (Darling-Hammond, 1994; McTighe, 1997).

Also, the focus needs to be on having learners engage in building competence in doing tasks and skills that are important (Wiggins, 1998).  In addition, he says that we increase students competence by giving them feedback (Wiggins, 1998). Professor Robin Kay used screen-casting to provide customized feedback with detailed comments on how to improve my work. In the Learning with Technology course, we used a blogging tool called WebKF to make our learning visible. With this tool, colleagues were able to post questions and comments which prompted me to question my thinking and change my thinking if necessary.

Eisner (1999) argued that instead of traditional assessments (i.e., “testing practices that require students to select the single correct answer from an array of four or five distractors”(Eisner, 1999, p. 659)) assessing students for their performances is better to help equip them to be prepared for the world of work. Montgomery (2002) also argued that instructors evaluate students using rubrics along with written feedback. Eisner (1999) also stresses the aim to show how learners are improving at an individual level. Instead, Kohn, 2008 stresses that narrative comments is the way to go. Kohn (1994) says that there would be more enjoyment of learning if students are not concerned about grades. Montgomery (2002) stresses that it is important to note their starting points and then track and show their growth.

New technology such as Ted Ed Lessons are giving instructors the chance to personalize feedback and observe their progress. For instance, Prodigy (An online game for students to practice math in a fun and interactive way) lets teachers determine the level of difficulty of the questions their students will receive based on the feedback the website provides on the level of ease or difficulty students are having with previous questions.

Wiggins (1998) stressed that just giving feedback by assigning a number such as the how many correct responses were made on a multiple choice test is not the best feedback because learners could have copied, or guessed the answers. The trend now seems to be to help learners understand the information and transfer it (Daniels & Pearson, 2011). Wiggins (2015) stressed that the purpose of being literate is to transfer what you learn to other contexts. Thus, feedback should be aimed with that in mind to help learners know and get that and think about applying knowledge in different contexts. Feedback should help learners see how well they did compared to the clear learning goal which Wiggins (2015) is stressing should be on understanding and comprehension of the material. Also, Daniels and Pearson (2011) stresses the importance of leading students towards developing their comprehension skills. Kohn (2012) is arguing you don’t need to give grades and do tests as the only way to get and share how well students are learning, Kohn is against presenting a number or grade to judge achievement. Grades decreases intrinsic motivation, instead we should put the emphasis on learning instead of wanting a specific grade (Kohn, 2012). When students just want a grade, they avoid risk taking and mistakes which lead learning because it may result in a poor grade, instead they just want to get the grade and so will choose the easier and more familiar thing to do (Kohn, 2012). “A grade-oriented environment is associated with increased levels of cheating, grades promote a fear of failure” (Kohn, 2012, p. 9). Help students not focus so much on evaluating themselves but to instead just enjoy the process of learning: “The more students are led to focus on how well they are doing the less engaged they tend to be with what they’re doing” (Kohn, 2012, p. 10). Intrinsic motivation: “a desire to learn for its own sake” (Kohn, 2012, p. 10). Extrinsic motivation”which includes a desire to get better grades” (Kohn, 2012, p. 10). Kohn (2012) is suggesting to replace grades with a portfolio, not doing a portfolio for a grade, but just for its own sake to show what has been learned.

Goals of education? “Helping them become more enthusiastic about learning” (Kohn, 2012, p. 11). He suggests instructors remove grades so they can start thinking deeply and want to do so. Avoid grades and narrative comments because “when there’s only a comment, they read it” (Kohn, 2012, p. 12). Other better outcomes/goals of school: “Desire for students to understand ideas from the inside out … [enjoy] playing with words and numbers, or be in charge of their own learning” (Kohn, 2012, p. 13).

“Stop putting letters or number grades on assignments and instead offer only qualitative feedback” (Kohn, 2012, p. 14). The aim is to tell how the students are doing (Kohn, 2012). Comments tell what needs to be improved and what is being done well.

To conclude, the above information is suggesting that it is beneficial to provide consistent feedback via oral dialogue and written communication about the learners’ understanding. It might then be a great idea to keep a journal (i.e., e-journal or blog) to keep a journal of insights. We want learners to be curious and enjoy the process of learning and taking the time to think deeply (Kohn, 2012)

References

Daniels, H., & Pearson, P.D. (2011). Toward the next generation of comprehension

      instruction: A coda. In Comprehension Going Forward (pp. 243–253). Retrieved

      from https://grantwiggins.files.wordpress.com/2015/04/...

Darling-Hammond, L. (1994). Setting standards for students: The case for authentic

      assessment. Paper presented at the The Educational Forum, 59(1) 14-21.

Eisner, E. W. (1999). The uses and limits of performance assessment. Phi Delta Kappan,

      80(9), 658-659.

Kohn, A. (1994). Grading: The issue is not how but why. Educational Leadership, 52,

      38-38.

Kohn, A. (2008). The dangerous myth of grade inflation. State University of New York

      Press, Albany.

Kohn, A. (2012). The Case Against Grades. Education Digest, 77(5), 8–16.

McTighe, J. (1997). What happens between assessments? Educational Leadership, 54,

       6-13.

Montgomery, K. (2002). Authentic tasks and rubrics: Going beyond traditional

       assessments in college teaching. College Teaching, 50(1), 34-40.

Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment. Designing assessments to inform and

      improve student performance. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 350 Sansome Street, San

      Francisco.

Wiggins, G. (2015, April 20). On transfer as the goal in literacy (7th in a series)

      [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/qey4s9f

Artifacts Relating to Feedback

Artifact 1: Games Event at Gurdwara
Subtheme: Multimodal Communication
(Learning Tools Course)

The link above titled Summary of Learning Theories Assignment, will take you to an assignment I completed for the Learning Tools course (Thind, 2014). I was required to summarize many of the main learning theories and will now explain how some of the main learning theories influenced development and gameplay of the games that were played at the Gurmat Games event (See picture above).

Social Learning Theory

This theory stresses that interaction with others and observations of others are the key to helping an individual learn; however, the learner is required to pay attention, and deliberately make the effort to both pay attention and remember what they are learning (Social Learning Theory, n.d.). The games at this event required the learners to both interact and observe each other. For instance, in Naam Nidhaan, when a player got the chance card of meditation, the player modeled how to meditate.

Behaviourism

This school of thought teaches that right after someone performs an action, if they receive a positive consequence, they are more likely to do that behaviour again (Behaviorism, n.d.). In the Punjabble game, players who earned at least 100 points earned a green star pin as a positive reinforcement.

Social Development Theory

Social development theory focuses on pairing a learner with someone who has more knowledge and capability than the learner, what Vygotsky calls the More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) (More Knowledgeable Other, 2013). The two then engage in a collaborative process of learning and interaction. The MKO helps the learner in their zone of proximal development (i.e., where with help and guidance they are able to do more than what they are capable of doing alone) (Vygotsky & Kozulin, 2011).

In each game, it is hoped that at least one of the players will be a MKO and aim to help and assist others in their understanding especially when they make a mistake. For example, I recently created a Gurmukhi Bingo game that I brought to the event. Each player can write various numbers of the Gurmukhi font on their bingo cards with a dry-erase marker. If players noticed a mistake on another player’s card, I noticed that they were willing to point it out which led the player to self-correct. This game could also provide an opportunity for an MKO to guide a learner when the novice is writing the numbers on their card. For instance, if the novice only remembers how to write numbers 1 to 5, then an MKO can scaffold them by providing hints to help them go beyond what they are able to do independently.

Situated Learning

According to situated learning theory, the best way to learn is to put learners in situations that are similar to where they would need to apply that knowledge (Situated Learning Theory (Lave), n.d.). The key in this is also to be paired up with an MKO who models their thinking and actions so that the learner can eventually gain independence through this process of observation and interaction (James, 2006). In the punjabble game, players get the chance to practice speaking Punjabi orally to earn extra points and this process mimics a real conversation situation they may have with others when they are not playing this game.

Experiential Learning

I learned that one optimal way to learn and enrich the developing brain of learners is by providing them with rich experiences (Bransford et al., 2000). As stated in Kolb’s learning cycle, learning experiences are central to the learning experience which is then followed by reflection where one can learn from their mistakes and create hypotheses for experimentation (Smith, 2010). In the Naam Nidhaan game, players were given a chance to engage in experiences such as exercising. For example, one player got the chance card of exercise and they chose to demonstrate an exercise such as doing push-ups for an extra point along with their explanation of it. This is important for someone who is playing the game and does not regularly exercise. By doing the exercises along with the person who gets the chance card, someone who does not regularly exercise may reflect and start this practice in their life.

To conclude, I think one important lesson I have learned in this M.Ed program is the habit of using theory & evidence as a foundation for one’s practice and this assignment gave me a wonderful chance to learn the theory I needed to develop games that would maximize the learning of all participants playing the games.

References

Behaviorism, (n.d.). In Learning Theories. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/3orwpde

Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., Cocking, R. R., & Donovan, S. (2000). How People Learn:

       Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (Expanded Edition).

James, M. A. (2006). Teaching for transfer in ELT. ELT Journal, 60(2), 151-159.

More Knowledgeable Other (2013). In Principles of Learning Wikipedia.

       Retrieved July 9,  2015 from http://tinyurl.com/ozo3gvd

Situated Learning Theory (Lave), (n.d.). In Learning Theories. Retrieved from

       http://tinyurl.com/26eltrn

Smith, M. K. (2001, 2010). ‘David A. Kolb on experiential learning’, the encyclopedia of

       informal education. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/kwr94y3

Social Learning Theory (Bandura), (n.d). In Learning Theories. Retrieved from

       http://tinyurl.com/ch2t2k

Thind, Y. (2014). Summary of Learning Theories (Document). Retrieved from:

       http://tinyurl.com/pbth7go

Vygotsky, L., & Kozulin, A. (2011). The Dynamics of the Schoolchild’s Mental

       Development in Relation to Teaching and Learning. Journal of Cognitive Education

      and Psychology, 10(2), 198–211.

Artifact 2: Leadership Portfolio
Subtheme: Personalize & Organize Learning
(Foundations of Leadership Course)

The link above will take you to a website I created to organize what I learned by taking the Foundations of Leadership course. Using a website such as Weebly and having the key objectives of the course as the title of each page was a good way for me to focus and organize and share what I learned.

I learned about the different types of leadership styles. One of the most impressive, is the transformational leader. One characteristic of this type of leader is that they tend to increase intrinsic motivation of their team members by providing each member with individualized consideration. This means that they make an intentional effort to find out about each person including their interests, strengths and goals (Avolio, 2011). As a result of learning about transformational leadership, when I go to a new class to teach, I provide a blank card for each learner. Then, I invite them to create a nametag using that card and include their goals, strengths and talents on it so that I can learn about them at an individual level.

By reading the results of the Michigan Leadership Studies, I also learned that good leaders are competent in both task completion and in relationship development (Hoefs & Wilhelm, 2014). Reflecting on how I was before this course, I feel that I prioritized task completion and relationship development was very low on my list of priorities; however, after this course, I realize that building relationships with others is very important.

Conger (2004) says that another attribute of great leaders is that they make sacrifices for the group. When I ordered 100 Punjabble games and 500 Naam Nidhaan games it was a huge financial sacrifice because I did not know if I would cover the costs in developing the games. The great news is that the games were eventually sold out and reached places as far as California to New Zealand. In addition, Avolio (2011) explains how great leaders challenge the status quo and show vulnerability. When going to Punjabi classes and playing with Punjabble to help the students learn I was challenging the traditional teaching method and experienced friction with a few traditional Punjabi teachers who resisted this game. They expressed how games such as these were for little children; however, even after explaining how the game could be adapted to players at different levels, I still felt the resistance. In terms of vulnerability, when playing the punjabble game, I often express my vulnerability by asking about the spelling of words that I am not sure about and I take the approach of openly admitting when I need help from the other players.

Another key aspect of great leaders is that they create systems for open communication (Northouse, 2010). As a result, I have started using and promoting the use of slack.com as a tool for open communication. It is a website and app that can be downloaded on devices to allow teams to communicate openly. It allows members to share their thoughts, ideas, and resources and receive instant feedback because team members can get instant notifications to alert them when messages are posted. Before this program, I was much more reserved; however, now I know that sitting alone at lunch while my colleagues are in the staff room is an old habit that I am walking away from.

I would also like to share the following two pictures to show how my understanding of leadership has changed after taking this course:

My understanding of leadership at the start of the course.
My understanding of leadership after the course, the words in bold are what I believe to be major components of a good leader.

References

Avolio, B. J. (2011). Full range leadership. In Full range leadership development.

      (2nd ed., pp. 49-75).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from

      http://tinyurl.com/onv8c3s

Conger, J. A. (2004). Charismatic Theory. In Encyclopedia of Leadership. 2455 Teller

     Road, Thousand Oaks California 91320 United States: SAGE Publications, Inc.

     Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ndhe4z8

Hoefs, L. & Wilhelm, J. (2014). Michigan Leadership Studies [PDF document]. Retrieved

     from http://tinyurl.com/pp72e2m

Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership:Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage

     Publications, Inc. Chapter 2: Trait Approach.

Artifact 3: Wiki Web-Based Learning Tool for Educreations App
Subtheme: Personalizing Feedback
(Learning Tools Course )

The link above is a web-based learning tool (WBLT) that I created for the Learning Tools course.

In creating this WBLT I used various instructional design principles (Clark & Mayer, 2011) and will now describe the Instructional Design Principles and how they influenced the design of my WBLT.

The Multimedia Principle suggests that instead when creating content for learners, instead of using text alone, it is better to combine visuals as well (Clark & Mayer, 2011).  Thus, in the videos created in my WBLT, you will find that there is minimal text and more visuals and audio narration.

The Contiguity Principle requires that the multimedia (e.g., audio or graphic) being used should be placed near the material that it is referring to (Clark & Mayer, 2011). In the wiki post link above, you will find that the graphics and text are close in proximity.

The Modality Principle: Advises that instead of using text to describe a graphic, it is better to use audio narration to describe a graphic since it is processed in both the auditory and visual channel (Clark & Mayer, 2011). As a result, you will notice that the video I created in the WBLT link above were mostly a combination of graphics and audio narration.

The Redundancy Principle: This is the principle that it is good use either audio narration alone or a combination of visuals combined with an audio narration (Clark & Mayer, 2011).  However, according to the redundancy principle, if one has already provided audio narration for a visual, one should avoid adding text because it can overload the viewer (Clark & Mayer, 2011).   Thus in the EduCanon video I have avoided adding text while I am explaining how to use the app.

The Coherence Principle: The main element of this principle is that one should only display content that relates to the learning goals of the WBLT, and avoid adding in irrelevant graphics (Clark & Mayer, 2011).

As a side note, in making this e-portfolio, I wanted to include extra graphics such as a group of people sitting together to go with my point of the importance of collaborating; however, I removed the picture as I felt that it was unnecessary.

The Personalization Principle: This is the principle where the interactions of the visitor with the WBLT gives it a personal touch whereby the individual feels as if they are engaged in an informal conversation with the developer and feels their presence via audio and video (Clark & Mayer, 2011). For instance, the questions that pop up during the EduCanon video aims at providing that conversational aspect which typically occurs during informal conversations (e.g., "How do you feel about recording with this app").

The Segmenting Principle is where a lesson is broken down into smaller segments (Clark & Mayer, 2011). In other words, it is the idea of introducing one idea at a time instead of overloading the learner with too much information (Clark & Mayer, 2011). I made this mistake with the first version of this e-portfolio, which had all my artifacts for the three themes all included on a single page. After receiving feedback from Professor Daphne Heywood, I decided to take action on her suggestions and created links to break up the parts of this portfolio which is now much easier to navigate. In addition, with respect to the WBLT on the EduCreations app I also applied this idea when I created a step by step video which is segmented into different levels starting with more easier to more difficult functions being explained.

Pre-training principle: This is the principle that it is better to prepare learners for what is to come (Clark & Mayer, 2011).  This can be done by giving the learner an introduction into what they will learn such as defining key vocabulary or providing background knowledge before the presentation of the actual material (Clark & Mayer, 2011). The survey below this post titled What Do You Already Know About Educreations, is an example of a tool that I used to gauge what key content I might need to provide to the visitors of my WBLT before they start their learning journey through this WBLT.

To conclude, I think that one important element of good WBLTs is that they provide feedback to the user and upon receiving feedback for this assignment I realized that I did not provide much feedback at all to the user of my WBLT. Upon reflection, I did not want to make this same mistake again and decided to stick with my decision to use the tackk.com platform for my e-portfolio because of its ability to connect with the visitors of this website. At the bottom of each page is a comment box which allows users to easily make comments. I will then be able to provide feedback as soon as I login as I will receive a notification. Lastly, a chat option is also available if the user creates an account and follows the developer of the tackk website that they are leaving a comment on.

References

Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2011). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven

        guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. John Wiley & Sons.

        Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/o7j7qb3

Artifact 4: Helping a Friend Learn to Tell Time (Lesson)
Subtheme: Tracking Progress
(Authentic Assessment Course )

This artifact includes a picture of a lesson that I modified when supply teaching. The original plan involved asking the students to pair up and use the practice clocks to prepare for a test on reading the time. I decided to apply what I learned about problem based learning and started the lesson by giving the students a scenario which would also achieve the original learning goals of the lesson and help learners develop other competencies. For instance, this modified lesson provided the students with the opportunity to work together, use technology to find solutions and demonstrate their learning beyond just a traditional assessment such as selecting the correct times on a worksheet.

I learned in the Authentic Assessment course about how the traditional methods of assessing students (i.e., paper and pencil tests such as multiple choice tests (Eisner, 1999)) have a number of negative consequences. For example, one limit of traditional assessments are that they only develop a lower level of learning such as rote learning (Darling-Hammond, 1994). In addition, traditional assessments can be disconnected to reality and only provide one chance for the learner to show what they know (Wiggins, 1998). On the other hand, there are benefits to using traditional assessments especially for teachers as they can be quick and easy to mark and report back to parents and students and can help the teacher see if the learners know acquired the content knowledge (Madaus & O'Dwyer, 1999).

In addition, Davis (as cited in Freeman & Hatch, 1989) stresses that instead of making learners do paper and pencil writing tasks (i.e., traditional assessments), it is more beneficial to provide learners with learning experiences. In addition, I now feel that shifting to include more authentic assessments will help learners develop the competencies they need to succeed in life. Dewey (as cited in Freeman & Hatch, 1989) is suggesting that "education is preparation for life". Traditional assessments are limited in their ability to develop a wide range of skills in the learners (Wiggins, 1993). As a result, I feel that teachers need to provide learning experiences that go beyond traditional assessments and help learners develop at a "cognitive, social, emotional and physical [level]"(Freeman & Hatch, p. 603, 1989).

Instead of all students being asked to show their learning in the same way, I think it can be advantageous to assess students in a way that matches their strengths. I have also learned in this course that it is powerful to combine the practice of providing feedback throughout the learning process with giving students the chance to choose how they want to show their learning (Wiggins, 1989).

In addition, it is effective to provide students with authentic tasks that have a real-world connection where they are required to apply ideas and create products for a key audience to demonstrate their learning (McTighe, 1997). This is where I think technology is great in that it can allow learners to show their learning in a better way than traditional assessments. To illustrate, with a tablet such as an iPad a learner can explain their learning by creating videos, recording audio, taking pictures and writing blog posts to show their progress in understanding over time (Wiggins, 1989; McTighe, 1997). In my experience, I have noticed that as I increase the opportunities for learners to use technology during classroom time, it seems like Kohn's (2008) goal of education to have students love learning at an intrinsic level is being met.

In terms of tracking the progress of students, I find using the Evernote app to be very helpful during a lesson such as this. The Evernote app can be used on iPads and a teacher can take a picture and then converse with the student and take an audio recording or write notes that which can be used as evidence of learning and used to show their progress over time. This link below will take you to post made in the Principles of Learning Wikipedia which provides more information on the Evernote app:

References

Darling-Hammond, L. (1994). Setting standards for students: The case for authentic

        assessment. Paper presented at the The Educational Forum, 59(1) 14-21.

Eisner, E. W. (1999). The uses and limits of performance assessment. Phi Delta Kappan,

        80(9), 658-659.

Freeman, E. B., & Hatch, A. J. (1989). What Schools Expect Young Children to Know

       and Do: An Analysis of Kindergarten Report Cards. Elementary School Journal,

       89(5), 595-605.

Evernote, (2011). In Principles of Learning Wikipedia.

       Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/osug7xo

Kohn, A. (2008). The dangerous myth of grade inflation. State University of New York

       Press, Albany.

Madaus, G. F., & O'Dwyer, L. M. (1999). Short history of performance assessment:

       Lessons learned. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(9), 688-689.

McTighe, J. (1997). What happens between assessments? Educational Leadership, 54,

       6-13.

Wiggins, G. (1989). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi

       Delta Kappan, 703-713.

Wiggins, G. (1993). Assessment: Authenticity, context, and validity. Phi Delta Kappan,

      75(3), 200-08.

Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment. Designing assessments to inform and

     improve student performance. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 350 Sansome Street, San

     Francisco.

Artifact 5: Using Padlet to Track the Progress of Learners
Subtheme: Customizing Feedback
(Foundations of Leadership Course )

Transformational leaders provide individual consideration for each team member. This means that they coach, support, help, and track the progress of each individual and provides appropriate tasks and projects based on their needs (Avolio, 2004). This artifact is an example of a padlet I created using www.padlet.com which allows the developer of the padlet to focus in on each learner to take notes on their progress. For instance, I can create a note to track what an individual knows before the learning experience, during and after. In addition, it can be used to track evidence of their learning by opening the note and adding the results achieved over time. An interesting feature of padlet is that you can easily add pictures which can provide evidence that they reached their goals. In addition, in the course Authentic Assessment, I learned an interesting perspective that proposes that instead of giving a grade, it is much better to provide written feedback about what is working and how to improve (Kohn, 1994). The reasoning for this viewpoint is that learners enjoy the process more when they are not graded as being graded can lead to anxiety and impact their self-esteem when they compare their marks with others (Kohn, 2008). With padlet, the teacher can apply Kohn’s advice and provide written comment posts for each learner. In addition, included in the picture for this artifact you will see a section where the player and I write down the development plan for the learner to help them reach their next goal. Thus, padlet allows one to provide individualized attention by creating development plans for each learner.

In the Foundations of Leadership course, I also learned about two distinct leadership styles: Transactive and Transformational Leaders. The picture above of the padlet I created for the Punjabble game shows both of these leadership theories in action. For instance, if the player reached a certain amount of points they received a reward of a pin which is included in the picture below. A key feature of transactive leaders according to Avolio (2004) is that they provide contingent rewards where they make agreements outlining the rewards they would receive if they achieve certain results.

These are Punjabble pins which are used as rewards for players who earn 100 (Green star), 300 (Yellow star) and 500 points (Red star).

In terms of transformational leadership, each post focuses in on each individual learner and their goals and progress. Transformational leaders according to Avolio (2004) strive to help individuals meet their needs and improve their goals and skills. The rationale for doing this is that motivation is increased if people feel that their skills are improving (Tracy, 2014). This padlet lets me keep track of each player and enter in their scores to show them how they are either improving or that they need to do something differently to improve their scores.

Before this course, I had an unorganized system of using paper, pencil and sticky notes to take anecdotal notes on students which were usually lost by the time I returned to that class; however, I am now using technology to track and keep notes on students which is more organized and efficient. Using padlet and the Evernote app lets me focus in on an individual and track their growth and log evidence of their learning to see how they are improving over time.

References

Avolio, B. J. (2004). Transformational and Transactional Leadership. In Encyclopedia of

        Leadership. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks California 91320 United States:

        SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/q3gftw8

Conger, J. A. (2004). Charismatic Theory. In Encyclopedia of Leadership. 2455 Teller

        Road, Thousand Oaks California 91320 United States: SAGE Publications, Inc.

        Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ndhe4z8

Kohn, A. (1994). Grading: The issue is not how but why. Educational Leadership, 52,

        38-38.

Kohn, A. (2008). The dangerous myth of grade inflation. State University of New York

        Press, Albany.

Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership:Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage

       Publications, Inc. Chapter 2: Trait Approach.

Tracy, B. (2014). Leadership. New York: American Management Association.

Links