Overview on Chapter 3-Software,Operating Systems & Applications

SOFTWARE: Programs in general can be known as software, to show the difference easily between hardware on which they run. It can be classified as system software and applications. There are many types of software. For example programming languages that are written by programmers are known as writing software. They are being developed all the time and different programming languages(ways of writing instructions for a computer to execute) are being made. Furthermore, system software is the type that can be written to make and control the use of hardware. It consists of operating systems:which control the hardware as it acts as an interface between the user and the hardware; also applications and hardware. As well as this, applications are programs that do tasks similar to the real world that users want. Moreover, a utility software is made mainly for personal computers. Utilities are generally small-scale programs that perform limited tasks.

EXAMPLES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS: To define, an operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer. It has evolved in order to take care of different needs and also to make advantages and improve hardware. Some have made the user interface part of the operating systems. However, some restrict the operating system to hardware operation leaving other people to produce graphical interfaces if they so desire.


  • Command line-Where typed commands are given to the operating systems.
  • Shell-Software that provides a traditional text based interface to a operating system.
  • Device driver-A program that enables communication between a computer and a peripheral.
  • Interrupt-A signal to the operating system to stop what us doing and perform a different task instead.
  • Applet-A small application that performs a different task instead.
  • Embedded system-A computer system that forms part of an electronic device.
  • Firmware-Software that is stored permanently in a device, such as control programs for devices.
  • Client-Software or hardware that requests services from a server.
  • Server-Software that provides services to a client, or the hardware that is running it.

Maryam Awadh

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