WAXING- In the northern hemisphere, if the left side of the Moon is dark then the light part is growing, and the Moon is referred to as waxing (moving toward a full moon).
WANING- If the right side of the Moon is dark then the light part is shrinking, and the Moon is referred to as waning (past full and moving toward a new moon).
GIBBOUS- It’s when the Moon is more than half full, but not quite fully illuminated,
CRESCENT-A crescent moon is part way between a half moon and a new moon, or between a new moon and a half moon.
LUNAR CYCLE- The lunar cycle refers to the moon's continuous orbit around the earth. As the moon orbits the earth, its appearance (the "phase") changes and thus gives us an indication of the moon's progress in the cycle (the "age"). 1 lunar cycle is equal to 29.53059 days or 29.5 days.
Earth's Seasons and Eclipses
1.) Nicolai Copernicus (1473-1543) was the man who radically changed our understanding of astronomy when he proposed that the sun, not Earth, was the center of the solar system.
2.) We have seasons beause Around the time of the June solstice, the North Pole is tilted toward the sun and the Northern Hemisphere is starting to enjoy summer. We now know that Earth orbits the sun elliptically and, at the same time, spins on an axis that is tilted relative to its plane of orbit.
3.) It is not until the ground and oceans absorb enough heat to reach equilibrium with the temperature of the atmosphere that we feel the coldest days of winter or hottest days of summer.
4.) An eclipse of the Sun (or solar eclipse) can only occur at New Moon when the Moon passes between Earth and Sun. If the Moon's shadow happens to fall upon Earth's surface at that time, we see some portion of the Sun's disk covered or 'eclipsed' by the Moon.
5.) We have day and night because the Earth rotates. It spins on its axis, which is an imaginary line passing through the North and South Poles. The Earth spins slowly all the time, but we don't feel any movement because it turns smoothly and at the same speed.
SOLSTICE- On this day (JUNE 21 in the northern hemisphere*) the Sun is farthest north and the length of time between Sunrise and Sunset is the longest of the year. On this day (DECEMBER 22 in the northern hemisphere*) the Sun is farthest south and the length of time between Sunrise and Sunset is the shortest of the year.
EQUINOX- The beginning of a long period of sunlight at the Pole. In the northern hemisphere: MARCH 20 (the Sun crosses the Equator moving northward). The beginning of a long period of darkness at the Pole. In the northern hemisphere: SEPTEMBER 22 (the Sun crosses the Equator moving southward).
1.) Alfred Wagner was the scientist who proposed the Continental Drift Theory in the early twentieth century. Simply put, his hypothesis proposed that the continents had once been joined, and over time had drifted apart.
2.) Convergent coming closer together, especially in characteristics or ideas.
Divergent tending to be different or develop in different directions.
Transformation Boundaries Two plates slide against each other in a sideways motion.
First picture Transformation Boundary, Second picture divergent Boundary, Last picture convergent boundary.
3.) Juan de Fuca Plate is just off the coast of Washington.
4.) Partial melting of the basaltic Juan de Fuca slab as it subducts beneath the North American plate has produced a series of volcanic arcs called the Cascade Range (Priest, 1990). The Cascade Range is located along the west coast of North America, extending from British Columbia to Northern California (Swanson et al., 1989). Moving North to South down the Cascade Range, the composition of rocks formed from volcanoes becomes increasingly basaltic. There are significantly fewer rocks of andesitic to dacitic composition in the south compared to rocks in the north (Swanson et al., 1989). Figure 1 shows the geology of the Cascade Range region (Swanson et al., 1989). Volcanism production rates around 35 Ma were higher than they have been in more recent history, corresponding with the faster rate of convergence of the plates (Priest, 1990). Around 25 Ma a deformation event occurred, tilting and faulting the rocks in the region (Priest, 1990). Volcanism production decreased around 16.9 Ma ago as the rate of plate convergence slowed down (Priest, 1990). Interestingly, approximately 7.4 Ma volcanism rates slightly increased although plate convergence rates continue to decrease (Priest, 1990). Priest believes that the stress exerted upon the upper plate is responsible for this slight increase.
5.) Convection is defined as the movement of molecules in a fluid. Convection in the Earth is what causes flows in the plastic layer of Earth. This creates forces on the plates in the lithosphere to move because of convection.
6.) Rift Zone is a feature of some volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes, in which a linear series of fissures in the volcanic edifice allows lava to be erupted from the volcano's flank instead of from its summit.
7.) The name "Channeled Scablands" was first used in the early 1920's by geologist J Harlen Bretz of the University of Chicago, who made a comprehensive study of the region and proposed the idea that the erosional features were the result of a gigantic flood. Although Bretz' concept sparked a lively controversy, most geologists today agree that the Scablands were carved by a flood of unprecedented proportions that took place 18,000 to 20,000 years ago during the Great Ice Age.
The Spokane Flood left its mark along a course of more than 550 miles, extending from western Montana to the Pacific Ocean, but the most spectacular flood features were carved into the black volcanic rock terrain in eastern Washington. This rock, the "floor" of the Scablands, is basalt—a dense crystalline lava that covers more than 100,000 square miles in parts of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The part of the lava field that underlies the Scablands in eastern Washington is a saucer-shaped area of about 15,000 square miles almost completely surrounded by mountains and nearly encircled by three rivers—the Columbia, the Spokane, and the Snake.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle and accumulate or minerals to precipitate from a solution.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire) is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava
metamorphic rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase. Note : Examples are marble, which can be formed from limestone, and slate, which is formed from shale.
Examples: mabrle from limestone, slate from shale are metaorphic rocks.
breccia, conglomerate, sandstone, and shale are examples of sedimenary rocks.
andesite, basalt, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite and scoria are examples of ignious rocks.
Stratification is a system or formation of layers, classes, or categories. is used to describe a particular way of arranging seeds while planting, as well as the geological layers of rocks.
Fossils have been known to people for hundreds of years, but it was not until the late 1700’s and early 1800’s that people began to really think hard about what fossils are and what they mean. At this time, a few individuals were beginning to guess that the earth was much older than had previously been believed. These thinkers used ideas from human history to begin studying earth history.
I think that youndger are usally on top of the older ones because the newer build on top the older
Cell- the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
Although, the overall function of the cell is the same, there are some important differences between animal and plant cells. The first difference is that plant cells have an organelle called chloroplast. Chloroplasts contain a pigment called chlorophyll (which gives the plant its green color).
Blood The most important function of red blood cells is the transport of oxygen. The hemoglobin absorbs oxygen in the lungs, travels through blood vessels and brings oxygen to all other cells via the heart.
Muscle The main function of the muscular system is movement. Muscles are the only tissue in the body that has the ability to contract and therefore move the other parts of the body.
Nerves Neurons in the brain communicate via electrical impulses and neurotransmitters. The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body.
The simplest level of organization is that of the cell. A group of cells with a similar function is called a tissue. Groups of tissues working together to perform a common function are called organs. An example of this would include the nervous, muscle, and other tissues which make up the heart. Groups of organs working together to perform a common function are referred to as a system or organ system. The blood vessels, blood, and the heart are organs which work together to form the circulatory system. Many different systems function together to allow a complex organism to function.
our digestive and respiratory systems, at first glance, seem very separate in their activities. In reality, however, the systems work together intimately in several ways. The results of respiratory activity allow the digestive tract to function, and vice versa. Furthermore, the systems work together to provide energy to body cells.
They all have a cell membrane and have a food vacuole.
G and g are the two genotypes
Green, Green, Green, and Yellow are the possible outcomes
Two homozugous outcomes
Two hetrozous outcomes
When you have sexual reproduction you get genes from two people. when you have asexual reproduction you get genes from one persons.
Adaptation any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply inits environment.
Evolution change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift
Species the major subdivision of a genus or sub genus, regarded as the basic category of biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one another, are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species.
Gene the basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides the coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when translated into protein, leads to the expression of hereditary character.
Sexual Reproduction In sexual reproduction, two individuals produce offspring that have genetic characteristics from both parents.
Asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only.
Genetic diversity also reduces the incidence of unfavorable inherited traits. In a small, isolated population of organisms, individuals may be forced to breed with close relatives. When this happens, the genetic makeup of the individuals becomes more and more uniform, and genetic flaws become increasingly more common. This phenomenon is called inbreeding.When closely related organisms (siblings or cousins, for example) interbreed, any genetic weaknesses that are hidden in the parents can be multiplied in the offspring. For example, animals can be carriers of a gene for an inherited disease, but not show any symptoms. If they mate with a partner who is also a carrier, then the offspring may exhibit symptoms of the disease. (We’ll talk more about inherited traits next week.) In an inbred population, chances are greater that carriers will interbreed. Over time, the entire population is weakened.