France and the Netherlands


-In the early 16th century, the French continued efforts to secure widespread recognition as a political power

-The French kings were strong patrons of art and architecture

The Netherlands

-The Duchy of Burgundy fell in 1477

-The Netherlands consisted of 17 provinces

-Most commercially advanced and prosperous

-Strong trade routes because of the many rivers, hub of economic activity

- Many citizens converted to Protestantism midst the reformation

-Controlled by Philip II of Spain

- A revolt in 1579 responded to his heavy-handed tactics, eventually leading to the       formation of two federations

-The Union of Arras was a Catholic confederation in the south and Union of Utrecht was      a Protestant federation in the north, eventually becoming the Dutch Republic

Francis I, Jean Clouet, 1525-1530

Francis I

Francis I – outlawed Protestant religions

Pieces often political to show power of the king; most commissioned for King Francis

Mannerism quality – disproportionate between head and body; clashing colors (green and red)

Political – shows splendor of king

Chateau de Chambord, 1519

Chateau de Chambord

Indicates the Baroque style coming

Leonard da vinci helped design it

Testimony to his two loves: architecture and hunting (originally was a hunting lodge)

156 meter façade, 426 rooms, 77 staircases, 282 fireplaces and 800 sculpted capital

Gothic, Renaissance, and medieval castle adaption

West wing of the Cour Carre of the Louvre, Pierre Lescot, 1546


Symbol of wealth and power for French monarchy

Started out as a fortress for Philip II, first official king of France, and then it became a palace

Francis demolished original structure and had his friend, Leonardo da Vinci, move to France and help redesign it in Renaissance style

Indicates Baroque period to come

Garden of Earthly Delights, Hieronymous Bosch, 1505-1510
Neptune and Amphitrite, Jan Gossaert, 1516

Neptune and Amphitrite

  • More than 6ft tall
  • Netherland polish, skillfully drawing carefully modeled figures
  • Depicts the sea god naked with his trident, nude but covered with a strategically placed conch shell
  • Both figures are in a contropasto stance
  • Architectural frame is a combination of Doric and ionic elements including ox skull decorations
Money Changer and His Wife, Quinten Massys, 1514

Money Changer and His Wife

  • 2 figures are seated behind a table, perfectly symmetrical, making them the focus of attention
  • The man is weighing jewelry, which is distracting his wife as she is reading a work of devotion
  • The mirror placed in the foreground-a common device in Flemish painting, allowing the artist to create a link with the space beyond the framed scene-reflects a figure standing in front of a window.
  • On the right, a man and youth are seen talking through a slightly opened door
Butcher's Stall, Pieter Aertsen, 1551

Butcher's Stall

  • Straightforward genre scene but includes the Holy Family Offering aims to a beggar in the background
  • Provides a stark contrast between gluttony and religious piety
  • Contains an assortment of slaughtered animals, animal meats
Self-Portrait, Caterina van Hemessen, 1548


Female Artist

Elizabeth I as a Princess, Levina Teerling, 1559

Elizabeth I as a Princess

Shows her dignity, grace, ability to learn, and beauty.

Made for her dad Henry VIII

later given to Edward VI (Elizabeth’s I)

Somewhat mannerist because the painting is to draw attention to her long slender limbs

Landscape with Saint Jerome, Joachim Patinir, 1520-1524

Landscape with Saint Jerome

Netherlandish Proverbs, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1559

Netherlandish Proverbs

Hunters in the Snow, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1565

Hunters in the Snow

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