There are 3 general types of bonds.
Ionic bonds are created when one atom gives up an electron to another atom causing both atoms to become ionic. This leaves a cation and an anion. An example of this is when sodium gives an atom to chlorine when bonding to make salt. Ionic compounds generally have a high melting point, dissolve in water, and conduct electricity when liquid or dissolved in water
Covalent bonds are when atoms share electrons. Depending on electro negativity the sharing can be polar or non polar. Covalent bonds generally dissolve in water, have a low melting point, and don't conduct electricity.
Electrons in metallic bonds are shared between the atoms and flow freely. Metallic bonds conduct well, have a high melting point, and don't dissolve.