Biotic Factors include sharks, dolphins, krill, shrimp, eels, flounder, marlins, seahorses, jellyfish, stingrays, lobsters, crabs, tuna, tigerfish, pufferfish, seals etc.
Abiotic factors include seaweed, underwater volcanoes, boulders, sand and sunlight which varies depending on how much direct sunlight the area receives. Air pressure and moisture are also factors. Water temperatures vary depending on the amount of direct sunlight an area gets.
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Carrying capacity is the number of organisms an ecosystem can support. For example: if there is a shortage of small fish, the ocean cannot support as many sharks as it would if it had plentiful fish.
Limiting factors are factors in an ecosystem that limit the growth of a population. One example of a limiting factor in the ocean is hurricanes. Another example is one of the top predators, the Tiger Shark. The Tiger Shark preys on smaller fish, not allowing their population to grow out of control.
Examples of organisms in specific energy roles:
Producer-Algae and Plankton
Omnivore-Sea Turtle and Whales
Carnivore-Sharks and Jellyfish
Scavenger-Crustaceans and Molluscs
Food Chains and Food Webs
Food webs give a better understanding of an ecosystem than food chains because in a food chain, only one organism can eat another. Food webs show multiple organisms eating an organism--which is actually what happens, unlike a food chain.
If you were to remove tuna from this ecosystem, marlins, small sharks and large sharks would have a shortage of food.
Trophic Levels and Energy Pyramids
At the bottom, there is approximately 1000 calories, 100 at the second, 10 at the third, 1 at the fourth, and one tenth at the top.
The importance of using a pyramid is to show that the amount of energy decreases when going up a level.
Producers are at the bottom because they receive the most energy and top predators are at the top because they receive the least amount of energy.
Carbon Dioxide, water, and sunlight are all needed for a plant to go through the process of photosynthesis.Glucose, a type of sugar,is produced in photosynthesis and oxygen is a waste product. Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast of plants.
One example of a tropism is the way seaweed grows toward the sun. This is an example of phototropism.
One example of a decomposer in the ocean is shrimp. These little creatures eat and decompose ocean waste.
One ocean fish that has made adaptations is the mako shark. It's long, sleek body has allowed it to swim faster to catch it's speedy prey, the tuna.
An example of natural selection is the flounder. The flounder have changed over time and become much more slimmer and brown, making the fish difficult to see.