U.S.A 1997-2015
Continuity & Change
BY Hadja Toure

Evaluate the extent to which economics, politics, culture, and America’s role in the world from 1988-2015 contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostering change in the United States.

Throughout the past decades , American culture’s, polities ,technology and role in the world has changed considerably while remaining consistent to some extended. The U.S is now the world power due to change in foreign policy from isolationism to interventionism, technology advancement and economic prosperity. However struggle for civil liberty for minority stay remain to be an issued.

Document A

Source: The Washington Post Company, June 3, 1997,

"McVeigh Guilty on All 11 Count: Newspapers/Politics & Power/Year of Birth


McVeigh Guilty on All 11 Counts

Timothy J. McVeigh was convicted today of the worst act of domestic terrorism in American history, the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City that killed 168 people and injured more than 500 others.

A federal jury of seven men and five women deliberated for 23 hours over four days before finding McVeigh guilty on all 11 counts of murder, conspiracy and using a weapon of mass destruction in the devastating April 19, 1995, blast. The panel now must decide whether McVeigh, 29, should be sentenced to death by lethal injection or to life in prison without possibility of parole. The punishment phase of the trial begins Wednesday.

       "I want him to get the death penalty . . . because I have never seen any remorse from Tim McVeigh," said Jannie Coverdale, who lost her two young grandsons in the blast and who has attended almost every hearing since McVeigh's arrest.A teary-eyed Roy Sells, who lost his wife, Leora, told reporters that when he heard the verdicts he said to his wife in heaven, "Honey, justice has been served."Hundreds of spectators lined the streets outside the downtown courthouse and cheered lead federal prosecutor Joseph H. Hartzler as he left the building giving the thumbs-up sign. "We thank the victims for their patience and dignity throughout this whole ordeal," he said. "We are obviously very pleased. We always had confidence in our evidence. Now everyone else will have confidence in the evidence and the verdict. We're ready to move on to the next stage."McVeigh, a decorated Persian Gulf War veteran, was charged with one count each of conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction, use of a weapon of mass destruction and destruction of a federal building with an explosive, and eight counts of premeditated murder in the deaths of eight federal law enforcement officers while they were on duty.

Historical Context: 1997 – McVeigh Guilty on All 11 Counts - exercise the congressional power layout by the constitution to punch those who commit treason against the United States. It is stated in the constitution that such person is “dead in the eyes of the law—even before execution. The primary source document represents the Unites States fight against terrorism during 1997.

Audience: To inform readers that felony who committed act of terrorism against the United States resulting in the death of 168 people and injured more than 500 others has been brought to justice


This newspaper from the Washington Post Company is significant because it illustrates the constitutional power that both protects and defends the U.S against terrorists’ and punishes those who committed act of terrorism. The article states, “Timothy J. McVeigh was convicted today of the worst act of domestic terrorism in American history, the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City that killed 168 people and injured more than 500 others.” This demonstrates constitutional power that give congress the right to convicted those who commit act of terrorism against the U.S. It is stated in the Constitution that “those adjudged guilty of treason and finally sentenced were considered attaint, or stained, meaning dead in the eyes of the law—even before execution.

Document B:

Source: Cable News Network. A Time Warner Company, Jan 20, 2009,

"Barack Obama Oath of Office: Films/Politics & Power/Middle School


Barack Obama Oath of Office 2009 inauguration HQ

Historical Context: 1989 – Barack Obama Oath of Office represents the advancement of African American in U.S society. It also reflects polities and power by showing the oath of office and presidential power being given to a man of African descent for the first time in U.S history.

Purpose: To ensure that the whole America and the world watch and witnessed Barack Obama oath of office.


Obama inauguration as the president of the United States of America was a major historical events for many American and the world. Barach Obama oath of office can be used as an illustration of how far democracy, freedom and citizenship have been extended in the U.S to fully include black people. It is a perfect example of polities and power- it demonstrate the first time in the history of united states of America that a black person has ever been given that level of political power and responsibility. As stated “ "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Document C:

Source: September 21, 2001,

"Transcript of President Bush's address: Speech/American in the world/Elementary school


Transcript of President Bush's address to a joint session of Congress on Thursday night, September 20, 2001.

The terrorists' directive commands them to kill Christians and Jews, to kill all Americans and make no distinctions among military and civilians, including women and children. This group and its leader, a person named Osama bin Laden, are linked to many other organizations in different countries, including the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.

There are thousands of these terrorists in more than 60 countries.

They are recruited from their own nations and neighborhoods and brought to camps in places like Afghanistan where they are trained in the tactics of terror. They are sent back to their homes or sent to hide in countries around the world to plot evil and destruction. The leadership of al Qaeda has great influence in Afghanistan and supports the Taliban regime in controlling most of that country. In Afghanistan we see al Qaeda's vision for the world. Afghanistan's people have been brutalized, many are starving and many have fled.

Women are not allowed to attend school. You can be jailed for owning a television. Religion can be practiced only as their leaders dictate. A man can be jailed in Afghanistan if his beard is not long enough. The United States respects the people of Afghanistan -- after all, we are currently its largest source of humanitarian aid -- but we condemn the Taliban regime.


It is not only repressing its own people, it is threatening people everywhere by sponsoring and sheltering and supplying terrorists.

By aiding and abetting murder, the Taliban regime is committing murder. And tonight the United States of America makes the following demands on the Taliban:

-- Deliver to United States authorities all of the leaders of Al Qaeda who hide in your land.

-- Release all foreign nationals, including American citizens you have unjustly imprisoned.

-- Protect foreign journalists, diplomats and aid workers in your country.

-- Close immediately and permanently every terrorist training camp in Afghanistan. And hand over every terrorist and every person and their support structure to appropriate authorities.

-- Give the United States full access to terrorist training camps, so we can make sure they are no longer operating.

These demands are not open to negotiation or discussion.

Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there.

It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated.

Historical Context: President George Bush declared war on Afghanistan in response to the 9-11 attack.

Purpose: To inform American of the reasons behind the declaration of war against Afghanistan.


President George Bush declaration of war against Afghanistan in response to the 9-11 attack change U.S foreign policy from isolationism to interventionism, in other word the united states did not have the luxurious anymore to stay in their own little box and avoid foreign issues; it had to intervene in world issues because the U.S was being effected on a personal level. It was now the U.S role in the world to fight and put an end to terrorism organization. As stated “Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated.

Document D:

Source:  September 11, 2001,

"September 11 2001 As It Happened - CNN Live 8.40am - 10.11am Oral history/American in the world/Elementary school


Historical Context: The 9/11 attack forever change the United States foreign from isolationism to interventionism. This is due to the fact that it led to the United States declaring war on a foreign nation (Afghanistan). It also renews U.S fight against terrorism organization to a great extended. Due to the 9/11 attack the U.S new role in the world became to fight dismantle terrorist organization.

Purpose: to get eyewitness point of view on exactly what happen when the World Trade Center collapse.


The 9-11 attack really charge U.S society and the way the government deal with the rest of the world. Before the 9-11 attack the United States wasn’t officially engaged in any foreign wars therefore its foreign was more or less isolationism; the 9-11 terrorist attacks resulted in changing attitudes and concerns about safe, this led to the development of new policies such as the USA patriot Act which prioritized national security and defense. It also led to a declaration of war against Afghanistan; ultimately changing the United States foreign policy from isolationism to interventionism.

Document E:

Source: JEFF SOMMER, OCT. 25, 2014

“When iPhones Ring, the Economy Listens: Newspaper/Technology /High School

Gloomy economic news and the wild swings of the stock market may be getting you down. But at least you can count on this: We’ve entered the sweet spot of the iPhone cycle.

Since Sept. 19, when the iPhone 6 and its larger sibling, the iPhone 6 Plus, went on sale, consumers have been ordering the gadgets faster than Apple can deliver them. The ripple effects are being felt throughout the economy — and they have been moving the stock market.

“The iPhone is having a measurable impact,” said Michael Feroli, the chief United States economist for JPMorgan Chase. “It’s a little gadget, but it costs a lot and it seems that everybody has one. When you do the multiplication, it’s going to matter.” He estimates that iPhone sales are adding one-quarter to one-third of a percentage point to the annualized growth rate of the gross domestic product.

You may not think of the iPhone as a financial powerhouse. After all, it’s just a consumer good — albeit a highly functional, high-end one that you can carry in your pocket or your purse. Sales typically surge every two years when, as now, Apple does a major iPhone upgrade. You may have the warm and personal relationship with the iPhone that Timothy D. Cook, Apple’s chief executive, described on Monday to Wall Street analysts during aconference call. Apple’s next three months will be “incredibly strong,” he said. And he spoke enthusiastically about the principal reason for this performance: “These iPhones are the best we have ever created and customers absolutely love them.” Whether you love them or not, though, it’s a good moment to recognize their significance as a financial force.

Historical Context: 2014- “When iphones Ring, the Economy Listens” discusses and demonstrate the impact the iphones 6, has had on US economy. As stated “ iPhone sales are adding one-quarter to one-third of a percentage point to the annualized growth rate of the gross domestic product(JPMorgan Chase).

Purpose: to discuss the impact the iphone 6 has had on US economic.


The iphone 6 has considerable impacted U.S society both positively and natively. It has change the way people socialize. Smart devices like the iphone 6 allow connect us to a wider network of friends; it also allow as stay in touch with family and friend around the world. It has impacted U.S economy in a positive way. In fact according Michael Feroli, the chief United States economist for JPMorgan Chase, stated that “Phone sales are adding one-quarter to one-third of a percentage point to the annualized growth rate of the gross domestic product.

Document F:

Source: Sep 30, 2014

“Apple Watch - Introducing Apple Watch: Commercial /Technology /High School


Historical Context: The Apple watch is unlike any other device that has ever been made. It has revolutionized technology and the way people use wristwatches. Historically a wristwatch was only use for telling time but the apple watch does so much more. It not only tells time but it also can be use as a map and weather device.

Purpose: to education consumer about the different feature on the Apple company new wristwatch

Reflection: the new apple watch has revolutionized technology and the way in which people has wrist watch for generation. In my opinion, it has affected American society in a positive way. It has stimulated and allows people to do everyday duties such as answering text and checking the weather much more effectively and with ease.

Document G:

Source: Apr 28, 2015

“President Obama’s Comments on Baltimore Violence — Video & Transcript

: Speeches /Culture /Current year


With respect to Baltimore, let me make a couple of points. First, obviously our thoughts continue to be with the family of Freddie Gray. Understandably, they want answers. And DOJ has opened an investigation. It is working with local law enforcement to find out exactly what happened, and I think there should be full transparency and accountability.

Second, my thoughts are with the police officers who were injured in last night’s disturbances. It underscores that that’s a tough job and we have to keep that in mind, and my hope is that they can heal and get back to work as soon as possible.

Point number three, there’s no excuse for the kind of violence that we saw yesterday. It is counterproductive. When individuals get crowbars and start prying open doors to loot, they’re not protesting, they’re not making a statement — they’re stealing. When they burn down a building, they’re committing arson. And they’re destroying and undermining businesses and opportunities in their own communities that rob jobs and opportunity from people in that area.

So it is entirely appropriate that the mayor of Baltimore, who I spoke to yesterday, and the governor, who I spoke to yesterday, work to stop that kind of senseless violence and destruction. That is not a protest. That is not a statement. It’s people — a handful of people taking advantage of a situation for their own purposes, and they need to be treated as criminals.

Point number four, the violence that happened yesterday distracted from the fact that you had seen multiple days of peaceful protests that were focused on entirely legitimate concerns of these communities in Baltimore, led by clergy and community leaders. And they were constructive and they were thoughtful, and frankly, didn’t get that much attention. And one burning building will be looped on television over and over and over again, and the thousands of demonstrators who did it the right way I think have been lost in the discussion.

The overwhelming majority of the community in Baltimore I think have handled this appropriately, expressing real concern and outrage over the possibility that our laws were not applied evenly in the case of Mr. Gray, and that accountability needs to exist. And I think we have to give them credit. My understanding is, is you’ve got some of the same organizers now going back into these communities to try to clean up in the aftermath of a handful of criminals and thugs who tore up the place. What they were doing, what those community leaders and clergy and others were doing, that is a statement. That’s the kind of organizing that needs to take place if we’re going to tackle this problem. And they deserve credit for it, and we should be lifting them up.

Point number five — and I’ve got six, because this is important. Since Ferguson, and the task force that we put together, we have seen too many instances of what appears to be police officers interacting with individuals — primarily African American, often poor — in ways that have raised troubling questions. And it comes up, it seems like, once a week now, or once every couple of weeks. And so I think it’s pretty understandable why the leaders of civil rights organizations but, more importantly, moms and dads across the country, might start saying this is a crisis. What I’d say is this has been a slow-rolling crisis. This has been going on for a long time. This is not new, and we shouldn’t pretend that it’s new.

The good news is, is that perhaps there’s some newfound awareness because of social media and video cameras and so forth that there are problems and challenges when it comes to how policing and our laws are applied in certain communities, and we have to pay attention to it and respond.

Historical Context: 2015- the Baltimore riot is an example of a black culture movement in response to threat and political brutality against black people and their right as citizen of the United States of America.

Purpose: to show and get president Obama perspective on the Baltimore Riots.

Reflection: I agree with Obama that the Baltimore residents who had burned build in the city are nothing more than, as stated “handful of criminals and thugs who tore up the place”. If we have learned anything from the past, we all should that nonviolent methods of protest are the best way of bringing about change. Dr. King was a effective civil right leader because he nonviolent methods of protest to make U.S society aware of the struggle black people was going through discrimination- this led to Dr. King ultimately winning freedom and equality for all Americans.

Document H:

Source: Apr 1, 2012

“TRAYVON MARTIN ORIGINAL 911 CALL ENHANCED VERSION! (Screams) Last word (HELP): Sound Recordings /Culture /High School


Historical Context: Traven Marlin death was a very controversial issue for many American. His death led to a new black civil right movement “Blacks lives matter’ “gaining a lot of momentum from the black community.

Purpose: to share Trayvon Martin last call for help with the public in the hope of uncovering the events that led to his death and gaining justify for his death.

Reflection: the death of Trayvon Martin was a very tragic event that made a lot of African American aware of the racial issues that is still alive in America. He was a 17 boy who did not deserve to die in sure a brutal way just for being black. The killing of Traven Martin impacted America to a great extended. Because of technology and the internet, people from across the globe took interest in the case. Because of Florida’s “sunshine law,” discovery documents and pleadings filed in the case were made public. George Zimmerman’s trial for 2nd degree murder was shown on television, and live-streamed.

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