& Nyla H.
What is the Holocaust?
The Holocaust began in 1933 when Adolf Hitler "the Leader" came to power in Germany and ended in 1945 when the Nazis were defeated by the Allied powers. The term "Holocaust" comes from the Greek word "holokauston" which means "sacrifice by fire" in which it refers to the Nazi's persecution and planned slaughter of the Jewish people.
GENOCIDE: the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation
This relates to the Holocaust because there was a mass murder of millions of European Jews. Members of some other persecuted groups, such as Gypsies and homosexuals were also murdered.
Hitlers Rise to Power
Hitler grew up, anti-Semitism "hatred of Jews" and surrounded him in life. He moved to Germany to earn a living and enlisted in the Army during WWl. When Germany lost the war, Hitler blamed the Jews and the German government for his country's defeat. He tried taking over the government but Hitler and the Nazi party only came to power in the mid 1930's. Hitler entered himself as a candidate for the position of president of Germany. The Nazi party promised people revenger for the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler lost the election, he soon appointed Chancellor by his presidential opponent. Hindenburg "the First Leader" died, Hitler declared himself Fuhrer of Germany.
The build up
Nuremberg laws were the first attempt by the Nazi government to define the Jews and as such, play a pivotal role in the process that lead to their annihilation. The Nuremberg laws were adopted by the Reichstag at the Nazi Party Day of September 15, 1935 there were essentially two laws and a decree that are of importance.
~ The Reich citizenship Law of September 15, 1935
1. A Reich citizen is a subject of the state who is of German or related blood, and proves by his conduct that he is willing and fit to faithfully serve the German people and Reich
2. Reich citizenship is acquired through the granting of a Reich citizenship certificate
3. The Reich citizen is the sole bearer of full political rights un accordance with the law
~ Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor of September 15, 1935
1. Marriages between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are invalid, even if concluded abroad to circumvent this law
2. Annulment proceedings can be initiated only by the state prosecutor
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST JEWS PRIOR TO HOLOCAUST:
Anti-Semitism is a form of hatred, mistrust, and contempt for Jews based on stereotypes and myths and often invokes the belief that Jews have extraordinary influence with which they conspire to harm or control society. It can target Jews as individuals, as a group or a people as a Jewish entity.
Common Anti-Semitic Myths and Stereotypes:
- Jews were cheap, greedy, "crooks", cheaters or they are rich with money, materialistic
- Jews control society, the banks, media, Hollywood, the government
- Jews exaggerate or exploit the tragedy of the Holocaust to invoke guilt and sympathy
- Jews are responsible for the death of Jesus
On November 9-10, 1938, the Nazis staged violent pogroms state sanctioned, antiJewish riots against the Jewish communities of Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland. These events came to be known as Kristallnacht "Night of the Broken Glass" which is a reference to the broken windows synagogues Jewish owned stores, community centers, and homes plundered and destroyed that night. Instigated by the Nazi regime, rioters burned or destroyed 267 synagogues, vandalized or looted 7,500 Jewish businesses, and killed at lest 91 Jewish people. They also damaged many Jewish cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes as police and fire brigades stood aside. Kristallnacht was a turning point in Nazi anti-Jewish policy that would culminate in the Holocaust.
Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany established about 20,000 camps to imprison its many millions of victims. These camps were used for a range of purposes including forced-labor camps, transit camps which served as temporary way stations, and killing centers built primarily or exclusively for mass murder. From the rise of power the Nazi regime built a series of detention facilities to imprison and eliminate "enemies of the state".
Most prisoners in the early concentration camps were German communists, socialists, social democrats,