Shackled and confided for their entire lives is how most of the mentally ill lived during the mundane Victorian era. This society had very strict social rules,thus, the mentally ill were seen as just plain "inconvenient." Mental illness wasn't the only way people could be cast off, but rather for just being eccentric This idea of the mentally ill as being just plain inconvenient changed with Sigmund Frued and his school of thought called,"psychoanalysis." His school of thought centered around the idea of "free association" and the subconscious.
Free association is a therapeutic technique in which a patient sits and talks about any and all thoughts that come to mind. Being able to speak freely then allows for things that may be influencing the patient subconsciously to come up and then be resolved,thus, helping the patient for the long term. Free association and its influence by the subconscious revolutionized the psychological field. This was due to the huge block in HOW people act the way they do, as well as the vital concept of "nature vs. nurture." Aside from unlocking what drives people's actions, Freud also made treating mental illness more ethical and brought psychology as a respected science for years to come.