Chapter 12, Section 2
REACTION OF REVOLUTION
By: Katherine Pittman
Sub-section heading: The Congress of Vienna
- Key point: Principle of Legitimacy: political philosophy that said that lawful monarchs from royal families that ruled before Napoleon who be restored their positions. They did this to keep Europe stable and peaceful.This had already been done with the Bourbon monarchy. Ignored in a lot of places.
Key point: Congress of Vienna: meeting place of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia to arrange a final peace settlement after Napoleons defeat. They rearranged territories in Europe, trying to form a new balance of power. They wanted to keep one country from dominating Europe.
Sub-section heading: The Conservative Order
- Key point: Conservatism: conservatives at the time believed in obedience within political authority and organized religion. To maintain balance; Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria(later France), meet to maintain peace in Europe(Concert of Europe). Together they adopted the Principle of Intervention.
- Key point: Principle of Intervention: gave the right to the powers to defend other countries with their armies. Britain disagreed with this principle. Austria, Prussia, Russia, and France used military forces to crush revolution in Spain and Italy.
The Congress of Vienna Pictures
The Conservative Order Pictures
Sub-section heading: Forces of Change
- Key point: Liberalism: a political philosophy that held people free from the government. Liberals had political beliefs that they all agreed with. Some liberation included, free from government, and freedom of speech, assembly and press. All of these freedoms were guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. Liberals wanted and believed in a lot of different things: religious toleration, legislature, constitution. They did not believe in a democracy.
- Key point: Nationalism: evolved from peoples awareness of their community. Became famous in the IR. Nationalist believed that each nationality should have its own government, especially the Germans and Hungarians. Many people were against Nationalism they feared it would upset the balance of power. Liberals believed that people who rule themselves should have freedom.
- Key point: Revolutionary Outburst: in 1830 liberalism and nationalism broke through the conservative domination of Europe. France; Charles X was overthrown, constitutional monarchy was established, Louis-Phillipe became monarch. Revolts in Belgium, Poland, Italy, Austria, and Russia occurred.
Sub-section heading: The Revolutions of 1848
- Key point: Trouble in The German States: the Frankfort Assembly failed to achieve the goal of a national and liberal dream life. The members drafted a constitution and didn't force the Germans to sign it, German unification was not achieved.
- Key point: Another French Revolution: economic problems led to hardship for the middle and lower classes. The middle class wanted rights to vote. The government was overthrown and a group of republicans set up a “provisional” government(to help the people). Workers refused to follow the rules and this lead to the war. A new constitution called the, “Second Republic.”
- Key point: Revolutions in Central Europe: The Austrian Empire: “multifunctional state”(collection of different people). Germans mostly ran the government. In Vienna, revolutionary forces took control of the capital and demanded a constitution. Hungary got their own government and the Czechs wanted their own. The Revolutions in the Austrian Empire failed.
- Key point: Revolts in the Italian States: Congress of Vienna set up nine states in Italy. A revolt broke out against the Austrians in Lombardy and Venetia. Revolts started across Europe which led to liberal constitutions and a liberal government.
Forces of Change Pictures
The Revolutions of 1848 Pictures
Vocabulary Terms & Definitions
- Conservatism: to preserve or restore, to limit change.
- Principle of Intervention: principle that allowed the great powers to send armies into countries where revolutions were occurring.
- Liberalism: allows freedom to people and parliament systems to the government.
- Universal Male Suffrage: a right that allows adult males voting rights.