Meg's World History Project

Mongols

Rulers

The only rulers of Mongolia were Genghis Khan and his son Kublai Khan. Genghis started the Mongolian Empire and his son Kublai started the Yuan Dynasty. They both led Mongolia on a path of success.

Government

The Mongols didn't really have a government system. They only had some one to tell them what to do and organizing the empire.

This is a helmet that was used by Mongolian soldiers. It offers protection in the neck, head, and upper face. It's also made of iron.

Culture

The Mongols did not create their own culture. Instead, they adapted to the cultures of the cities that they slaughtered. They were given the freedom to practice whatever religion they wanted.

The area of the Yuan Dynasty was located in present day China. It is also know as the Khanate of the Great Khan.

Achievements

Even though the Mongols did not invent anything or create any new religions or cultures, they had great war strategies and had effective weapons. They had bow and arrows, shields, helmets, axes, and rode on horses with skill.

Japan

Rulers

Japan had many rulers. These rulers were called Shogun. The first emperor came from the Yamato Clan. He was believed to be the grandson of the sun goddess. Then, one by one they chiefs of the clan started to call themselves emperors and the tradition grew on.

Government

In the Yamoto Clan, Emperor Kammu moved the capital from Heijōkyō to Nagaokakyō. The capital was later moved to Kyoto. Moving the capital to Kyoto brought in many people including nobles. This helped the development of Japan very much.

Culture

Buddhism became very popular in early Japan. It kept developing over time and was practices by the Japanese during the Yamato and Heian Period. They also believed in all sorts of sun and moon gods and goddesses. The women wore silk dresses and had proper manners. But the women could not write only men. The nobles wrote. They wrote poetry with respect and honor. During the time of the Yamato Clan, the future culture of Japan was already being influenced by China and Korea. Both Korea and China introduced Buddhism to Japan.

Achievements

One of the greatest achievements during the Heian Period was all of the writing that they wrote. They wrote many poems, stories and  books. Only nobles could write. They took great pride in their work and took a lot of time on it. They even considered it an art form. The greatest work produced at this time was The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu. Even though a lot of nobles wrote, women were considered some of the best authors at the time.

Korea

Rulers

The early Korean rulers came from the nomads. In the Koryo Dynasty, on of the first rulers was King Taejo. King Taejo was the founder of the Koryo Dynasty.

Government

The Koryo Dynasty developed the civil service test. But unlike other civilizations, only nobles could take the test. Because of this, society was divided by nobles and townspeople. The capital of Koryo moved from Kumsong to Songdo under the rule of King Taejo.

Culture

Korean culture thrived during the Koryo Dynasty. It was strongly influenced by China. Artisans were very popular in pottery. They made beautiful blue-green pots that were very shiny(AKA porcelean). Along with pottery, artisans also carved and printed. They printed Buddhist texts on wood blocks.

Achievements

They had many achievements in the arts such as creating porcelain. They also worked with metal, wood, and ink. Their most popular achievement was their pottery. It was so amazing and exquisite. They still use some of the techniques today.

Southeast Asia

Rulers

The rulers of The Khmer Empire had a temple built. This temple was called Angkor Wat. As a matter of fact, some of it is still standing today. The rulers of the Khmer Empire had a strong influence from Hindu and Buddhists. This caused the Khmer empire

Government

The capital city of The Khmer Empire was Angkor. It symbolized the shape of the Hindu universe. The capital city of The Pagan Kingdom was Pagan and the capital of Vietnam was Hanoi.

Culture

Because of India and China surrounding the Southeast Asian civilizations, they had a very strong effect on shaping and influencing these Empires, Dynasties, and Kingdoms. China and India influenced the Southeast civilizations to become Buddhist and also helped shape their trading. In the Pagan Kingdom the burmese language and culture eventually became very dominant in the area. They also practiced Buddhism. In Vietnam, they also practiced Buddhism. Since all of these kingdoms and empires were occurring at the same time, they all traded with each other. They traded textiles, pottery, weapons, sculpture, and so many other things.

Achievements

The Khmer Empire was considered a golden age for Southeast Asia. They had a strong, stable government, peace, and peoples needs were met. They had Metallurgy and Engineering as well. They made all sorts of weapons, textiles, and pottery. As well as metal working, all empires had great literature and writing skills. They were very successful when it came to writing.

Sui, Song, Tang Dynasties

Rulers

Some of the most important rulers during the Sui Dynasty were Sui Wendi and Sui Yangdi. Wendi lowered taxes for everyone and Yangdi completed the Grand Canal which helped the transportation. The important rulers during the Tang Dynasty were Gaozu, Wei Zeng, and Li Shimin. Gaozu was the founder of the Tang Dynasty. Wei Zeng was a great governance model for the people. Li Shimin was a great ruler continued the earlier emperor's great work. The only Empress in Chinese history was one of Shimin's concubines. When Shimin's son, Gaozong, died she became empress. She launched a military campaign against Korea. Some important emperors in Song Dynasty were Emperor Taizu and Wang Anshi. Taizu was a great contributor to their military. He also encouraged arts and literature. Wang Anshi was considered "one of the most original minds in Chinese history". He brought many reforms into the Song dynasty such as education, military, agriculture, and taxes.

Government

Thanks to the song dynasty, the economics of China were balanced and organized. Improving their farming methods is what really put them on top and raked in the money. Their new farming brought them money and helped the civilization from starving to death. All of this money led to the building of the Grand Canal and more foreign trade which brought in even more money. Because of this, China became the center of trade.

Culture

The Tang Dynasty was the Golden Age of China. They had a huge cultural and religious influence over Korea and Japan. Buddhism was the main religion, almost everybody practiced it. Feet binding was also something that they did. Feet binding is when they take your feet and either bind it up or put it in a special shoe. This caused your feet to shrink and look more dainty and lady like. They only did foot binding on the women.

Achievements

The Tang Dynasty created trading relations with people across the Indian Ocean which was definitely a great benefit for China at the time. Because of this, trading on the Silk Road became more popular as well. The Chinese dynasties were the first to create gunpowder, fireworks, they had paper productions, and they made the first chain driven mechanism(clock

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