Political: Emperors ruled over the empire. Notable emperors include Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes. Persians were known for being "nice" to the people they conquered.
Interaction with Environment: The area of modern day Iran where the empire was surrounded by mountains, desert, the Persian Gulf. They were open to Central Asia, which left them more susceptible to attacks from nomads. People didn't live in this area earlier on because the technology needed to exploit the limited resources of water didn't exist yet (underground irrigation).
Economy: Silver and gold coinage was used for currency. Trade was the empires main source of revenue, and trade was extensive throughout the whole empire.
Military: Persia had a large army and a navy. They fought with Greece when Xerxes was emperor, the Persians Wars.
Artistic: Darius displayed his wealth and power through the commission of a ceremonial capitol with sculptures and grand stairwells.
Social: There were no slaves because Persians let their conquered people keep their own cultures and ways of life. Women were not equal to men with equal skills but were high than men with less skills.
Technology: Extensive underground irrigation systems to combat the strong sun. Naval battle technologies (not as superior as Athens).
Education: The style of writing used was Elamite cuneiform.
Religion: Zoroastrainsm was a religion practiced and worshiped one supreme deity. They also believed greatly in the purity of the body.
The Earth and It's Peoples (textbook)