The picture above shows that upper Egypt is below lower Egypt, this is true. This is because the Nile River flows from south to north. Also the Nile River is the longest river in the world! The Nile was one of the only water sources the Egyptians had. A lot of Egypt was covered by deserts. Gifts from the Nile River came almost every year including fertile soil for crops, fresh water for drinking and bathing, trade, materials, and even the Egyptians used the river for making papyrus! The Egyptians had a " Red Land " and a " Black Land ". " Red Land " was the barren desert, which protected them from invading armies. Also the Egyptians found metals and precious stones there too. " Black Land " was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile for growing crops.
Stable Food Supply
When the Nile River Valley flooded, after several weeks the water made the soil perfect for farming. The Egyptians grew wheat, barley, vegetables, figs, melons, pomegranates, and cucumber. Sometimes when they hunted they would get fish, ducks, geese, hippos, crocodiles, giraffes, and ostriches. When the government official ate they had pigeon, quail, antelope, sheep, and goat. Also since the land was dry, the flooding successfully allowed the Egyptians to grow the crops that they needed.
The Egyptians believed in life after death. Since they believed in life after death, they gave the dead food and riches for the "journey" to the underworld. Religion was important to them because it was part of their everyday life, without it they wouldn't have their regular life style. Another thing about the Egyptians religion is that they believed in many gods and goddesses. One god was Ra the god of creation. Egyptians believed that he created the world. Also they believed that when the sun rises, it is a symbol of creation and renewal. Another god was Anubis the god of funeral and death. The Egyptians believed that he protected the dead. He also was the one to supervise embalming. Also the Egyptians believed that he embalmed Osiris. The god Osiris was shown as a human god. Seth his brother killed him because he was jealous and he wanted to become king instead. Osiris' wife brought him back to life when she found him. Osiris was then the god of the underworld, and any pharaoh that died became Osiris. One more god was Horus known as the go dog the sky. He was the son of Osiris and Isis. Egyptians believed that he gave more power to each of the pharaohs. While fighting, Seth,after his father's death he lost an eye during the fight. The Egyptians also believed in many more gods and goddesses.
System of Government
The system of government that the Egyptians had was that the pharaoh ruled everything and the visor was the second most important next to the pharaoh. The pharaoh Khufu was the one who built one of the most famous pyramids. No one knows how they built the Great Pyramid, since it took over 20 years. Khufu ran his system by keeping the stable food supply stable and having strict control. Another pharaoh named Senusret built many temples, shrines, and religious monuments. He built the White Chapel which it had many engraved gods, pharaohs, birds, Egyptians symbols, and carved scenes in the White Chapel. Also he kept his system running by finding gold, copper, and gems.A pharaoh named Hatshepsut was the first female pharaoh. She was a good trader and wanted the sam respect as all of the other male pharaohs. She built a great temple with over 200 sphinx statues in the entrance. Hatshepsut ran her system by filling the government with loyal advisers. One more pharaoh was Ramses II. He built great military armies. Also he created the first peace treaty in the world. He ran his system be building up powerful armies. The Egyptians also had many more pharaohs.
On the bottom of the social pyramid were the peasants. They were the least respected, but they were the largest group on the social pyramid. Peasants were the ones who worked n the land and provided the Egyptians the food that they needed. While they weren't farming, they worked on the pharaoh's massive building projects. Next on the social pyramid were the artisans. They were all crafts people like carpenters, metalworkers, painters, sculptors, and stone carvers. Artisans were highly skilled, but had little social status. Moving up on the social pyramid, Fourth was the scribes. Only men were aloud to be scribes. Scribes were respected in their position. They recorded information for the government and religious leaders. For young boys, it took years to become a scribe. Third on the pyramid were the priests. They were one of the powerful ones in the groups, since everyone had some sort of religion in their lives. Priests were in charge of temples and religious rituals. They also oversaw the ceremonies including death and burial. Government officials were second most important on the social pyramid. They carried out the orders of the pharaoh. Most of these officials came from noble families. They were powerful, wealthy, and enjoyed high quality life style. The most powerful in Egypt was the pharaoh. He/she was the most supreme ruler. The pharaohs authority was strengthened by the Egyptian religion.They were believed to be gods, and their word as the law.
The Egyptians built detailed wall engravings, stone carvings, sphinx, pyramids, giant statues for pharaohs, and furniture. The furniture they built were stools, cushions, and high back chairs. Egyptians also had instruments like harps, flutes, lutes, and rattles. For painting, after the Egyptians finished carving, they would add quartz sand to smooth and polish the object. Then the painters would add color to the finished product.
Advances in Technology
The Egyptians created sphinx, pyramids, and giant statues for pharaohs. For something to sit on they created stools, cushions, and high back chairs.Also for the music they created flutes, lutes, harps, and rattles. The women wore make-up and they also created beaded robes to wear. Both the women and men wore perfume.
The Egyptians used pictures and symbols to write. These symbols were hieroglyphs. There were over 700 hieroglyphs. Egyptians used papyrus for paper and they sharpened reeds for pens. They used red or black ink to write. Once an archeologist found the rosette stone with 3 different forms of writing on it, Greek, early Egypt, and later Egypt hieroglyphs. Since the archaeologists understood the greek, they were able to figure out the hieroglyphs.
This concludes my presentation of Ancient Egypt. I wrote about the geography, stable food supply, religion, system of government, social structure, the arts, advances in technology, and written language of Ancient Egypt. Everyday holds a new mystery.