Breast Cancer

About Breast Cancer

Breast cancer  is cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. Breast lumps aren’t the only possible sign of breast cancer, and most breast lumps aren’t cancer. The following will help you to see if you have breast cancer.

Symptoms

  A lump in the breast or underarm that persists after your cycle. This is often the first apparent symptom of breast cancer. Lumps associated with breast cancer are usually painless, although some may cause a prickly sensation. Lumps are usually visible on a mammogram long before they can be seen or felt.

  • Swelling in the armpit.
  • Pain or tenderness in the breast. Although lumps are usually painless, pain or tenderness can be a sign of breast cancer.
  • A noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast, which may indicate a tumor that cannot be seen or felt.
  • Any change in the size, contour, texture, or temperature of the breast. A reddish, pitted surface like the skin of an orange could be a sign of advanced breast cancer.
  • A change in the nipple, such as a nipple retraction, dimpling, itching, a burning sensation, or ulceration. A scaly rash of the nipple is symptomatic of Paget's disease, which may be associated with an underlying breast cancer.
  • Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be clear, bloody, or another color. It's usually caused by benign conditions but could be due to cancer in some cases.
  • A marble-like area under the skin.
  • An area that is distinctly different from any other area on either breast.

Possible Causes

While we do not yet know exactly what causes breast cancer, we do know that certain risk factors are linked to the disease. A risk factor is something that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet are linked to things a person does. Others, like a person's age, race, or family history, can’t be changed.

But risk factors don’t tell us everything. Having a risk factor, or even several, doesn’t mean that a woman will get breast cancer. Some women who have one or more risk factors never get the disease. And most women who do get breast cancer don't have any risk factors (other than being a woman and growing older). Some risk factors have a bigger effect than others, and your risk for breast cancer can change over time because of aging or lifestyle changes.

Although many risk factors may increase your chance of having breast cancer, it is not yet known just how some of these risk factors cause cells to become cancer. Hormones seem to play a role in many cases of breast cancer, but just how this happens is not fully understood.

Cancer Growth

Stages of Breast Cancer

At Stage 0 and 1, the cancer cells are confined to a very limited area. Stage 2 breast cancer is still in the earlier stages, but there is evidence that the cancer has begun to grow or spread. It is still contained to the breast area and is generally very effectively treated.Stage 3 breast cancer is considered advanced cancer with evidence of cancer is surrounding tissues near the breast. Stage 4 breast cancer indicates that cancer has spread beyond the breast to other areas of the body. During stage 4 the cancer metastasis. Metastasis is when cancer cells spread to other organs in the body.

Treatments

The treatments of breast cancer is SURGERY,

CHEMOTHERAPY , RADIATION THERAPY,HORMONE THERAPY, and TARGETED THERAPY. The  most common form of treatment for breast cancer is surgery. This involves removing the tumor and nearby margins. Surgical options may include a lumpectomy, partial mastectomy, radical mastectomy, and reconstruction. Chemotherapy is a breast cancer treatment method that uses a combination of drugs to either destroy cancer cells or slow down the growth of cancer cells. Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It affects the nearby skin or cells only in the part of the body that is treated with the radiation. If the cancer cells have hormone receptors, you may be prescribed hormone therapy drugs, such as blockers or inhibitors. Both types of drugs help to destroy cancer cells by cutting off their supply of hormones. Targeted therapy uses drugs that block the growth of breast cancer cells in specific ways, often reducing side effects.

Survival Rates

An overall survival rate shows the percentage of people who are alive after a certain period of time after diagnosis of a disease (such as breast cancer). This rate is a percentage of people alive after a specified time, but many people will live much longer. For example, say the five-year overall survival for women with stage I breast cancer is 90 percent. This means that 90 percent of women diagnosed with stage I breast cancer survive at least five years after diagnosis. Remission is another thing too. Remission is when signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared. In complete remission, all signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared, although cancer still may be in the body.

Overall survival varies by breast cancer stage. People diagnosed with stage 0, I or II breast cancers tend to have higher overall survival rates than people diagnosed with stage III or IV breast cancers. However, overall survival rates are averages and vary depending on each person’s diagnosis and treatment.

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