Digestive system

By; Caleb Bradley  
Period 6

Digestive System

1.Uses saliva to break down food

2.Your teeth chew the food to make it smaller

3.The chewed up food goes down the esophagus/throat then into the stomach which has acid

4.From here, the soupy food moves to your small intestine. This long, twisting tube is almost 20 feet (6 meters) long!

5.Other organs, such as your liver, send more acid. It breaks the food down even more.

6.Finally, the food has been broken into tiny pieces called nutrients.

7.These nutrients slip through the walls of the intestines and get carried by your blood all the way to the cells of your body

Mouth and esophagus

♛ The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract. In fact, digestion starts here as soon as you take the first bite of a meal. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.

♛ The pharynx, or throat, is a funnel-shaped tube connected to the posterior end of the mouth. The pharynx is responsible for the passing of masses of chewed food from the mouth to the esophagus. The pharynx also plays an important role in the respiratory system, as air from the nasal cavity passes through thepharynx on its way to the larynx and eventually the lungs Because the pharynx serves two different functions, it contains a flap of tissue known as theepiglottis that acts as a switch to route food to the esophagus and air to thelarynx.


♛ The size of the stomach varies from person to person, but on average it can comfortably contain 1-2 liters of food and liquid during a meal. When stretched to its maximum capacity by a large meal or overeating.

♛ The stomach may hold up to 3-4 liters. Distention of the stomach to its maximum size makes digestion difficult, as the stomach cannot easily contract to mix food properly and leads to feelings of discomfort.


♛ Weighing in at around 3 pounds, the liver is the body’s second largest organ; only the skin is larger and heavier.

♛ The liver performs many essential functions related to digestion, metabolism, immunity, and the storage of nutrients within the body.

♛ These functions make the liver a vital organ without which the tissues of the body would quickly die from lack of energy and nutrients. Fortunately, the liver has an incredible capacity for regeneration of dead or damaged tissues.

Small intestine

♛ Made up of three segments — the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum — the small intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the

♛ Contents of the small intestine start out semi-solid, and end in a liquid form after passing through the organ. Water, bile, enzymes, and mucous contribute to the change in consistency. Once the nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover-food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine, it then moves on to the large intestine, or colon.

Colon(Large Intestine)

♛ The colon is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attached to the cecum. The large intestine is a highly specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient.

♛ Stool, or waste left over from the digestive process, is passed through the colon by means of peristalsis, first in a liquid state and ultimately in a solid form. As stool passes through the colon, water is removed. Stool is stored in the sigmoid (S-shaped) colon until a "mass movement" empties it into the rectum once or twice a day. It normally takes about 36 hours for stool to get through the colon. The stool itself is mostly food debris and bacteria. These bacteria perform several useful functions, such as synthesizing various vitamins, processing waste products and food particles, and protecting against harmful bacteria. When the descending colon becomes full of stool, or feces, it empties its contents into the rectum to begin the process of elimination.

Excretory system


♛ The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs found along the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity. The left kidney is located slightly higher than the right kidney because the right side of the liver is much larger than the left side.

♛ The kidneys, unlike the other organs of the abdominal cavity, are located posterior to the peritoneum and touch the muscles of the back. The kidneys are surrounded by a layer of adipose that holds them in place and protects them from physical damage. The kidneys filter metabolic wastes, excess ions, and chemicals from the blood to form urine.


♛ A ureter is one of two uterine tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Each ureter is about ten to twelve inches long. Urine flows down partly by gravity, but mainly by waves of contractions.

♛ Which pass several times per minute through the muscle layers of the urethral walls. Each ureter enters the bladder through a tunnel in the bladder wall, which is angled to prevent the urine from running back into the ureter when the bladder contracts.

Urinary Bladder

♛ The urinary bladder is a sac-like hollow organ used for the storage of urine. The urinary bladder is located along the body’s midline at the inferior end of the pelvis.

♛ Urine entering the urinary bladder from the ureters slowly fills the hollow space of the bladder and stretches its elastic walls. The walls of the bladder allow it to stretch to hold anywhere from 600 to 800 milliliters of urine.

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