A CV means curriculum vitae, a CV contains information about you as well as your past job history and grades at school. For example:
worked at sainsburys DC 12th-3-13 until 9th-8-13,
A grade in maths and English, C in science.
An application form is your basic details saying in brief who you are and why you would like the job. For example:
Name: Alex Breeze
Job description is actually what the job is, for example:
A job a tescos would be describing the place and things they will be doing at that particular job.
Person specification is what the qualifications a person needs to get the job, and what qualities they need to achieve at that business, for example to work at Apple you would need much better qualifications and qualities than what you would at McDonalds.
Shortlisting is when you have a number of candidates and cut them down to only a few. For example:
The apprentice will start with about 20 people but the final will be about only three as they are the best three.
An interview is where you meet the employer and you have to persuade your the best person for the job. You will be asked business questions as well as possible personal questions so that employer can see if you will fit in his business well or not.